This book emerges from the authors’ shared experiences of conducting research into ‘sport for development’ in Zambia since 2006. The period during which we have been carrying out this work has been one of burgeoning growth in the use of sport to foster social change, during which sport for development (hereafter, SfD) has emerged as a ‘new social movement’ (Kidd, 2008) operating on a truly global scale. Like many researchers, we have been among the beneficiaries of this surge of interest, activity and funding, which has given us opportunities to conduct studies in countries and contexts which have had profound and enduring impacts on us personally as well as professionally. Like others, too, we have found that undertaking this work has continually exposed us to a myriad of challenging questions about the value of SfD, and the justification for researchers like ourselves to be involved in this field. Nevertheless, as with the SfD movement itself, academic interest in this field has expanded dramatically across widening geographic domains. The sheer scale and momentum of SfD has come itself to present particular dilemmas. We have especially come to share concerns that the global expansion of SfD may be obscuring the need for detailed understanding and analysis of the intricacies of enacting social change within and across contexts themselves characterized by complexity.
It is these considerations that underpin the twofold purpose of Localizing global sport for development. First, the book seeks to examine how local dimensions of SfD in Zambia correspond to increasingly established and recognized aspects of the global movement. This analysis encompasses policies and practices associated with both sport and development across multiple levels, and also connects the experiences of participants and other intended beneficiaries with the multifaceted contexts in which they live their lives. In aspiring to present a more rounded account of ‘local’ SfD than has previously been available, we draw on a diverse suite of studies undertaken over an extended period that, nevertheless, share a common orientation towards situating Zambian SfD within its broader contexts. The second purpose of the book is, therefore, to reflect on our methodological commitment to understanding and contextualizing local SfD. Ongoing consideration is given throughout the book to the research methods that have underpinned the findings that are presented. Overall, we seek to differentiate our approach to focusing on ‘the local’ from other prominent strands of SfD research and, in so doing, explore implications for future work and understanding in this field.
The suitability of Zambia as context for our localized approach to SfD research lies not only in the country's place as an early site, and subsequent host, of significant African SfD organizations and programmes. More generally, Zambia may also be considered a quintessential location for development efforts owing to features of its history and geography as well as social and economic status. Its location is a central one in southern Africa, being landlocked and surrounded by eight countries. In the post-war emergence of African countries from colonialization, Zambia achieved independence in 1964 – the 33rd African, and 8th British, colony to do so. Today, Zambia is home to a population of approximately 14.54 million. The majority live in urban areas along the ‘line of rail’ running from the Copperbelt region, through the capital, Lusaka, and on to Livingstone in the south of the country, bordering Zimbabwe. Compared with its neighbouring countries and others in Africa, Zambia has been proud of its relatively peaceful status since independence, with seven contested presidential elections being held since its return to multiparty democracy in 1991 (World Bank, 2013). Nevertheless, and despite also being blessed with abundant natural resources, Zambia has been one of the worst economically performing countries in Africa (Noyoo, 2008; UNDP, 2013). Although overall economic growth over the last decade has seen Zambia being reclassified as a Lower Middle Income Country, there remains substantial inequality with 60% of the Zambian population living below the national poverty line (World Bank, 2013), a figure that has little changed since 2006 (Gentilini and Sumner, 2012). Likewise, according to the broader measures of the international Human Development Index (HDI), Zambia was 163rd out of all 186 countries in 2012, with the UNDP (2011: 31) stating that ‘other than the countries … which have faced civil strife and economic upheavals during the recent past, no other country has faced Zambia's deterioration, stagnation and sluggish improvement in HDI over the past 30 years’.
Zambia has also ‘found itself at the epicentre of the HIV pandemic in Central and Southern Africa’ (UNDP, 2011: 31) since the first case of the disease was diagnosed in 1984. While prevalence of HIV infection has dropped somewhat in recent years, standing at 13.3% of 15- to 49-year-olds in 2013–14 (GRZ/NAC, 2015), the pandemic has had profound consequences that have left no one in the country unaffected. Approximately 680,000 Zambian children have already been orphaned by the pandemic, leaving just under half the population of the country under the age of 15 (UNDP, 2011). Gender inequality in Zambia is also strongly connected with HIV, with young females between 15 and 24 years old being more than twice as likely to be infected than males of the same age. Comparatively, Zambia stood 136th out of 146 countries in the international Gender Inequality Index (UNDP, 2012). Collectively, the interlinked problems affecting Zambia mean that the country has long been subject to international development efforts and policies. As recently as 2009, Zambia remained significantly dependent on overseas aid, which was valued at US$919 million, the equivalent of 7% of gross domestic product (GDP) (UNDP/Ministry of Finance and Planning, 2011).
The Zambian contexts that have been briefly introduced here will be explored in more detail and in connection to SfD throughout the subsequent chapters of the book. However, in order to contextualize our research, it is important to now explain its origins and development, through offering an overview of the studies we have undertaken, identifying the organizations we have worked with and describing the types of methods we have prioritized in our data collection.
Undertaking research in Zambia: an evolving agenda
Our association as a research team began relatively informally in 2003 when Davies Banda, a Zambian national completing a taught masters programme at Loughborough University, asked Tess Kay to supervise his dissertation study of peer leaders’ use of sport to deliver HIV/AIDS education in Lusaka. Davies had strong personal links with the Zambian founders of the Education through Sport (EduSport) Foundation and Sport In Action, the two local and indigenous NGOs that would be involved in his study, but little research background; Tess had substantial experience of research into sport and social justice in the UK, but none of working in Africa or in connection with HIV/AIDS education. This initial collaboration was therefore an educative experience on both sides, and led to some shared ideas about conducting further research that might be of value to the Zambian NGOs. At this point in time, SfD research and activity were beginning to gain momentum, raising questions and challenges for policymakers and academics, but most especially for the practitioners involved in delivering programmes on the ground.
These ideas came to fruition three years later in the summer of 2006, when Tess, with Davies’ support, put together a team of Loughborough University youth sport researchers to spend two weeks working with EduSport and Sport in Action in Lusaka. This research was undertaken in association with, and alongside, the first occurrence of UK Sport's IDEALS programme, in which students from Loughborough and other UK universities (collectively known as the Wallace Group) worked with the two Zambian NGOs in delivering SfD activities in Lusaka communities. Iain Lindsey and Ruth Jeanes were senior members of this initial research team, bringing with them their respective specialisms in sport policy analysis and participatory research with children and young people. The research carried out during this visit was very much a developmental learning experience for all involved. Multiple formal and informal exchanges of knowledge and understanding took place between the groups of Zambian and UK personnel involved in IDEALS – and also between our motley collection of researchers! We also had the opportunity to develop some initial links with UK Sport and other international organizations that were beginning to increase their involvement in SfD activities in Zambia.
Since 2006, the four of us have worked together in various combinations to continue our research in Zambia. Inclusive of our initial research engagement in 2006, we have visited Zambia on more than a dozen occasions and conducted ten separate studies. We have been especially fortunate in having opportunities to conduct some studies of our own design, supported by our academic institutions, but also to undertake others commissioned by external funding agencies and shaped by their requirements in terms of policy priorities and preferred methodologies. All of the studies have shared a focus on the utilization of sport to address various cross-cutting development issues, such as HIV/AIDS and gender inequality, which are pertinent to Zambia and have been addressed by SfD programmes elsewhere. A further common feature across these studies has been their connection, in varying ways and to various degrees, with two Zambian NGOs, EduSport and Sport in Action, with which we started our research in 2006. As such, we have given considerable attention to NGOs that play an important role in Zambian SfD and, more generally as a type of non-state provider, have been the locus of much SfD activity across the globe.
Our approaches to the design and undertaking of these studies have been continuously refined based on the learning we have gained over the period of our engagement in Zambia. Increasingly, we have sought to enable more active engagement and involvement of Zambian stakeholders within the research process, and this has been especially the case with regard to our work with EduSport and Sport in Action. All studies have gathered data on the perspectives of a range of stakeholders, from individual young people participating in sport activities through to national policymakers and international donors, in order to examine different dimensions of the relationship between sport and development in Zambia. Our collective ‘reach’ has been greatly enhanced by Davies’ proficiency in four local languages (Nyanja, Bemba, Tonga and Lozi), the first two being the common languages in Zambia's urban areas. Davies’ ability to switch to local languages to put interviewees at ease or to enable further elaboration of critical viewpoints in more informal chat has been used with diverse interviewees including SfD NGOs, government departments and also national sports association officials.
In the following chapter, the shared methodological orientation associated with all of our studies will be explained and discussed in relation to other research on SfD. To ground these discussions and those that follow in subsequent chapters, an overview of our individual studies is provided in Table 1 and the descriptions that follow.
|Timeline of studies||Study purpose and orientation||Data collected|
Summer 2006, Lusaka
|Researcher-designed exploratory research with EduSport and Sport in Action, facilitated by Davies and conducted by Ruth, Iain, Tess and other Loughborough University colleagues||75 interviews with (i) staff of the two NGOs; (ii) individuals involved in the delivery of the sport programmes, for example peer leaders and volunteers; (iii) personnel from delivery-level partner organizations, e.g. schools; and (iv) young people participating in sport activities|
Studies 2 and 3
Summer 2007, Lusaka
|Researcher-designed studies of (i)
partnership working in the delivery of HIV/AIDS education through
sport, led by Iain and Davies, and|
(ii) the use of sport to deliver HIV/AIDS education, led by Ruth and Tess
|(i) 14 interviews on partnership working with 22 participants from the NAC, the ZNAN, the Ministry of Education and the MSYCD, and both SfD and other NGOs addressing HIV/AIDS and health, and (ii) focus-group discussions with 68 young people who were either pupils in schools in Lusaka or involved in SfD programmes in Lusaka communities|
|Evaluation of II in Zambia by Tess and Ruth as part of a larger project commissioned by UK Sport, the British Council and UNICEF to evaluate Phase 1 of II in five countries||Interviews with (i) British Council, UNICEF and UK Sport staff; (ii) officers of the MSYCD and Ministry of Education; (iii) staff of five Lusaka-based SfD NGOs; (iv) volunteers and paid staff of NSAs and the NSCZ; (v) teachers in secondary schools; (vi) peer leaders in the community setting; and (vi) focus groups with c. 60 young people|
June 2009, Lusaka
|Researcher-designed research into Local Partnerships in Youth and Community Development, undertaken by Iain in collaboration with Dr Alan Grattan and funded by University of Southampton||37 interviews were undertaken with >60 paid or volunteer adult workers in local organizations undertaking youth and community work in two Lusaka communities; additional knowledge was gained from extensive informal discussions with staff from Sport in Action and EduSport who were involved in the conception, design and implementation of the research|
2008–13, Kabwe, Lusaka and Ndola
|Researcher-designed doctoral research conducted by Davies, focused on the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS by national sport associations in Zambia; funded by York St John University||30 semi-structured (face-to-face and telephone) interviews, one focus group discussion and documentary analysis; interviews with (i) case-study national sport associations of football, basketball and netball; (ii) two SfD NGOs; (iii) colonial government employees; and (iv) officials of the Ministry of Education, MSYCD, NSCZ and NAC|
2009–13, Lusaka and Livingstone
|Externally commissioned collaborative research led by Tess and Ruth to evaluate EduSport's Go Sisters project and build in-country research capacity; funded by the UK's DfID||Seven field visits of one to two weeks producing more than 2100 completed short questionnaires, nearly 300 reports from interviews conducted by Go Sisters participants and peer leaders, and more than 100 reports of qualitative data collection by the researchers from Go Sisters and EduSport staff, external stakeholders and peer leaders|
Summer 2009, Lusaka
|Researcher-designed study of the development of girls’ and womens’ football in Zambia, by Ruth with Dr Jonathan Magee||In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 young women and 8 mothers and grandmothers as well as with representatives from the Football Association of Zambia|
2010–13, Lusaka and Kabwe
|Curriculum development-focused research examining approaches to mainstream HIV/AIDS in teacher training courses, led by Davies in collaboration with Dr Michelle Jones and Slyvester Mbewe; funded by the DfID through its DelPHE||Collaborative training workshops which utilized focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews to explore approaches towards mainstreaming HIV/AIDS within the teacher-training curriculum; development and delivery of a university-credit-bearing Continuous Professional Development Certificate in Theory and Practice of Project Design and Performance Measurement Skills for local SfD and other NGOs; first course was delivered in Lusaka in June 2013|
Spring 2013, Lusaka
|End-of-project evaluation of capacity building of Go Sisters for DfID, led by Tess in collaboration with Dr Louise Mansfield||An external evaluation to assess the contribution of the DfID's five-year funding (2008–13) to (i) organizational capacity building of EduSport and (ii) expansion of the Go Sisters programme; it involved (i) nine stakeholder interviews with relevant representatives of communities, the MSYCD and other SfD NGOs, and (ii) a review of a five-year archive of project documentation and review of selected data from Study 7|
Study 1 – exploratory visit to Zambia
Study 1 comprised exploratory research conducted with EduSport and Sport in Action in 2006 by Ruth, Iain, Tess and other colleagues from Loughborough University. We were interested in seeing how SfD worked on the ground and understanding the operation of the two NGOs and the IDEALS programme, and hoped the visit would allow us to meet young people participating in, and involved in the delivery of, sport activities. We also hoped our visits and research activities in Zambia would help us form some opinions on how realistic, valuable and justifiable it could be for external, white, researchers like ourselves to ‘drop in’ to undertake research in local communities. During this time we undertook a total of 75 interviews with EduSport and Sport in Action staff, their peer leaders and other volunteers involved in delivering SfD activities, representatives of schools and other organizations that were partners in this delivery, and young people participating in these activities.
Study 2 – HIV/AIDS partnership working – and Study 3 – HIV/AIDS education through sport
Research conducted in 2007 through funding secured by Davies from York St John University had a twofold focus: (i) research led by Iain and Davies to explore issues associated with partnership working that had begun to emerge to us as important from initial engagement with Zambian SfD, and (ii) research led by Ruth and Tess, based on feedback from NGO staff and other in-country stakeholders, to further explore the delivery of HIV/AIDS education through sport and better understand the pedagogical underpinning and practical implementation of this approach.
The research into partnership working (Study 2) obtained 14 interviews involving 22 individual participants. For the first time, this data collection went beyond that directly involved in SfD to encompass representatives of the NAC, the ZNAN, the Ministry of Education and the MSYCD, as well as NGOs that primarily addressed HIV/AIDS and other health issues. At times, this engagement with stakeholders in the wider development sector proved to be a humbling experience that emphasized our naiveté as researchers in this field. Other opportunities during this visit, especially our attendance at a Stakeholders’ Forum organized by the Lusaka DATF where a number of presentations were made by NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS programmes, were useful in developing our practical understanding of broader development sectors and the range of organizations involved in development work.
The research to examine how sport was used as an educative platform (Study 3) involved 68 young people in six focus groups undertaken in Lusaka. The focus groups took place within a number of schools, and in other community locations so as to engage young people involved in SfD activities who were not necessarily attending school. The research connected with that undertaken the previous year and enabled us to speak with more young people than was previously possible and also to expand on some of the issues that were raised from our first study. We were also able to utilize our developing understanding of how to undertake research with young people, adapting also to practical issues in the research process, to facilitate extensive and rich conversations with young people from a variety of communities in Lusaka.
Study 4 – evaluating II Phase 1 in Zambia
Tess and Ruth conducted research from 2007 as the Zambia researchers in a larger team commissioned by UK Sport, the British Council and UNICEF to undertake a three-year evaluation of the implementation and impact of the II programme in five countries. This resulted in yearly visits, one to two weeks long, between 2008 and 2010. Our role as external evaluators was primarily to support in-country staff to undertake their own monitoring and evaluation but we also undertook interviews with in-country staff at the British Council, UNICEF and UK Sport and officers working with the MSYCD and Ministry of Education, as well as staff working for five Lusaka-based SfD NGOs. We also conducted several interviews with volunteers and paid staff from national sport associations (NSAs) and the NSCZ, teachers in secondary schools (12), and peer leaders (~15) delivering II in community settings. We undertook focus groups with approximately 60 young people participating in the school-based and community elements of II. The research allowed us to expand our understanding of how SfD was situated at policy level within Zambia, to gain the views of key ministry workers on its perceived importance and relevance, and to connect with mainstream sport in Zambia in order to explore links and tensions between established sports governing bodies and the emerging SfD sector.
Study 5 – local partnerships in youth and community development
Research undertaken in Lusaka in 2009 by Iain, for the research project Local Partnerships in Youth and Community Development was funded by Iain's then institution, the University of Southampton. This research was undertaken in collaboration with Dr Alan Grattan, a colleague then at the same university with previous experience in Zambia and expertise in youth and community development. Shaped by the expertise of both researchers, the study was therefore oriented by a broader focus than sport alone.
This particular study strengthened a number of aspects of our collective approach. It provided the first opportunity for a team member to spend a substantial amount of time within communities where SfD activities were delivered, and was also the first occasion on which it became practical to undertake research in partnership with our Zambian colleagues. Throughout data collection in Chawama and Kamwala – two communities selected by Sport in Action and EduSport as exemplifying cases for examining sport, youth and community development – the UK researchers worked in close collaboration with George Kakomwe (Sport in Action), and Annie Namukanga and Greg Shikombelo (both EduSport Foundation).
In total, throughout June 2009, the researchers undertook 37 interviews with over 60 adults either working or volunteering for organizations undertaking youth and community work. While sport was a topic raised in almost all interviews, it was very much addressed in the wider context of local community development work. George or Annie accompanied Iain and Alan for almost all interviews, and the extensive informal conversations that took place between the four of us while walking through Lusaka communities became one of the most significant forms of knowledge obtained. These discussions enhanced understandings of local contexts, informed interpretations of the emergent data, and above all reinforced our conviction that spending significant time immersed in local community contexts has crucial value in SfD research.
Study 6 – mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS by NSAs
Doctoral research conducted in 2008–13 by Davies focused on the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS by NSAs in Zambia. The research adopted a case study approach centring on three NSAs: the Football Association of Zambia, Zambia Basketball Association and Netball Association of Zambia. The research critically analysed the organizational responses of each of the NSAs towards the nationally adopted multisectoral approach towards HIV/AIDS. A comparative analysis of all three case studies was undertaken in relation to how the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS by each NSA was affected by organizational power, resources and forms of collaboration. The study helped to develop our understanding of the way in which sport and SfD in Zambia was, and is, shaped by the country's broader political, economic and social conditions.
Study 7 – qualitative evaluation of Go Sisters girls’ empowerment programme
Tess and Ruth conducted research in 2009–13 as a four-year evaluation of Go Sisters, a female empowerment programme run by EduSport since the 1990s that received funding from the DfID and UK Sport. The focus of our evaluation was specifically on outcomes for female peer leaders resulting from their involvement in Go Sisters. Examining outcomes across several years proved especially important in highlighting the difficulties of facilitating wider structural change via SfD, despite the passion, commitment and aspects of exceptional delivery that may be associated with SfD organizations. By returning year upon year, we also gained a much greater understanding of EduSport's work with and for peer leaders and participants. An additional part of our role as external evaluators was to support the Go Sisters staff and peer leaders with training, as well as to co-develop research tools to support them with undertaking their own ongoing research and evaluation. We were joined in this work in the final two years by colleagues Dr Louise Mansfield, Dr Megan Chawansky and Sarah Palmer-Felgate.
Study 8 – development of girls’ and women's football in Zambia
Ruth conducted research in Zambia in 2009 with colleague Dr Jonathan Magee examining the development of girls’ and women's football, funded by the University of Central Lancashire. This study emerged from Ruth's interest in the role of masculine sports in gender identity construction for young women, and also the phenomenal interest in girls’ and women's’ football that was becoming evident whilst undertaking the Go Sisters research. Zambia is traditionally a patriarchal society and football is a bastion of masculinity; that girls and young women were playing in such large numbers, mostly facilitated by SfD NGOs, presented an interesting paradox in ongoing gender relations. The purpose of the research, therefore, was to examine how young women negotiated participation in football, the impact their participation had on gender relations within their communities and the potential for participation to facilitate empowerment amongst young women. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 14 young women and 8 mothers and grandmothers, as well as with representatives from the Football Association of Zambia. The research again provided a rich account of the complexities of sport within young women's lives, and in particular the challenges of empowerment through sport.
Study 9 – mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in teacher training
This study was part of a DfID-funded DelPHE project led by Davies with Dr Michelle Jones and Sylvester Mbewe, as a partnership between York St John University, England, and Nkrumah University, a teacher training institute in Zambia. The project further developed work on how sport may contribute to HIV/AIDS education. The researchers held collaborative workshops which focused on how HIV/AIDS could be mainstreamed in curriculum development, in particular within research methods modules in physical education and sport courses delivered by the local higher education partner institution. The DelPHE project organized workshops, conducted both in Zambia and in the UK, which were attended by academic staff from both universities. Sharing understandings of practices to support the engagement of physical education and sport students in community-based sports programmes formed a key part of the needs-assessment research.
The DelPHE project also delivered a university-credit-bearing Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Certificate in Theory and Practice of Project Design and Performance Measurement Skills for Zambian NGOs. The CPD certificate was delivered by Davies and local academics in June 2013 to a first cohort of 14 students from several development sectors as well as from SfD NGOs. Mutual benefits between the SfD and other development sectors were realised as participants engaged in intensive week-long interactive sessions.
Study 10 – external evaluation of Go Sisters
In 2013, the team undertaking the qualitative evaluation of Go Sisters was commissioned by the charity IN to undertake additional research on the programme. This was to meet the DfID's requirements for an external evaluation of their five-year funding for organizational capacity building of EduSport and expansion of the Go Sisters programme. The evaluation was intended to inform EduSport and IN, with its donors, implementing staff and beneficiaries, about the achievements of the Go Sisters programme. This external evaluation drew on the findings of the ongoing research programme which Tess and Ruth were leading, and two further forms of evidence – an extensive archive of programme documentation, and information obtained through additional interviews with stakeholders carried out in the UK and Zambia between March and May 2013.
Orientation of the book and structure of chapters
It will now be evident that the research in Zambia that we present in this book is diverse, has been ongoing over several years and consists of a number of apparently separate studies each with its own distinct focus. We have also separately published data from particular studies in a number of different forms (Kay et al., 2007; Banda et al., 2008; Kay, 2009, 2012 ; Banda, 2010, 2011, 2013 ; Lindsey and Banda, 2011; Kay and Spaaij, 2012; Lindsey and Grattan, 2012; Jeanes, 2013; Jeanes et al., 2013; Lindsey, 2013; Spaaij and Jeanes, 2013; Jeanes and Magee, 2014).
In practice, we feel that the different studies that form this body of research are more mutually interdependent than they may appear from initial descriptions. From the start of our involvement in SfD research in Zambia, our ongoing collective discussions regarding methods, findings and experiences have shaped the distinct and separate studies that we have undertaken. It was during such discussions that ideas for this book emerged, initially in late 2008, as we began to realise that the breadth of our joint research was revealing interconnections and common themes that single studies in SfD – including our own – could not reveal when considered in isolation. Our distinct disciplinary and subject interests also meant that between us we were carrying out research which gave unusually wide coverage of SfD in a single country. The structure of the book reflects these origins, with its content shaped not around the findings that each study offers separately, but on the themes that emerge from the studies collectively. To provide this cross-cutting account, we have brought together data that have been analysed for different studies and we have, in some cases, re-analysed samples of data. Each chapter was then initially written collaboratively by those of us most centrally involved in its subject matter, before being repeatedly reread by all four of us in a reiterative process that has itself added to the emergence of some of the book's key themes. By exploiting the diversity of our research and data in this way, the book aims to provide a more wide-ranging yet detailed and holistic account of SfD than single studies offer.
Throughout the book, we attempt to develop understanding of SfD within Zambia by positioning our local studies in relation to analysis of SfD as a global phenomenon. This analysis commences in Chapter 1, which considers global and international dimensions of SfD and reviews the burgeoning literature that has emerged alongside it. The chapter examines the global emergence of the SfD ‘movement’ and its alignment with the MDGs, the range of organizations that have come to be associated with SfD, conceptualizations and critiques of the practices enacted by SfD organizations, and debates regarding the SfD ‘evidence-base’. In so doing, the chapter argues that the contours of the emerging SfD literature are such that there is a lacuna in terms of locally grounded research on SfD. This leads us, in the final section of Chapter 1, to return to further examine the methodologies employed in our research. Through considering the alignment of these methodologies with Norman Long's (2001) actor-orientated sociology of development, we develop a more in-depth understanding of how our approach may rigorously contribute to addressing the lacuna identified in existing SfD literature.
Chapter 2 begins to develop this locally grounded account of SfD in Zambia by situating the use of SfD in Zambia within broader trends of political and economic governance evident in the country. The chapter offers a historical account beginning in the period immediately after Zambia's independence in 1964, moving through the neo-liberal reforms imposed by international donors from the early 1980s to the development of alternative forms of development governance towards the end of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. Throughout the chapter, we consider both international influences on these broader trends and their relationship to the governance of sport and SfD. Doing so enables an analysis of how the emergence and institutionalization of the Zambian SfD sector connects both with broader sport policies in Zambia and, especially, with national and international influences on the country as a whole.
We further develop these themes in Chapter 3, in which partnerships and partnership working associated with HIV/AIDS are the specific focus. Policies and literature associated with both SfD and international development have highlighted the significance of partnerships within both of these sectors. The chapter examines partnerships associated with SfD in Zambia across three levels. First, at an international level, we consider the relationships between Zambian SfD NGOs and international donor organizations. Second, at a national level, we explore integration of SfD NGOs with Zambian HIV/AIDS structures and organizations. Third, we examine the place of sport in collaboration across organizations working with young people in specific Lusaka communities. This multilevel analysis does not necessarily (seek to) resolve definitional issues with regard to partnership, but does allow for identification of common and divergent issues that affect and relate to the use of sport to contribute to development in Zambia.
Chapter 4 is the first of three chapters which begin to focus on the ‘people’ side of SfD. Its function is to establish the local context within which SfD operates. The chapter has a particular focus on young people and the local contexts in which they live, which it examines in three sections addressing physical conditions and social provision in Lusaka communities: local education and employment systems; the social relations affecting the daily lives of young people, including the position of youth in families and gender relations; and young people and HIV/AIDS. The chapter brings together understandings drawn from national statistics and relevant literature with our own extensive local data collection with both adults and young people, and compares and contrasts the understandings that emerge. This approach demonstrates the value of local people's perspectives in revealing particularities in their lives and communities which published aggregate data may conceal, and highlights the importance of this knowledge to the local delivery of SfD. The chapter especially demonstrates that young people, whose views have been under-considered in the SfD literature, are well equipped to provide critical and knowledgeable accounts of the issues they face and which SfD organizations seek to alleviate.
Chapter 5 then explores local approaches to the provision of SfD in Zambia, with particular attention given throughout the chapter to peer leaders on whom the major responsibility for the delivery of SfD falls. The first section of the chapter examines key features of the sports activities provided by Zambian SfD organizations and discusses the rationales for particular forms of provision. The engagement, training and roles of peer leaders in the delivery of these sports activities are also examined. The second section then focuses on the more specifically ‘developmental’ and educational aspects of SfD provision that are delivered alongside and through sports activities. We again give attention to the pivotal role played by peer leaders; we discuss the pedagogical rationales for involving peer leaders in these aspects of provision, as well as the challenges that peer leaders face in fulfilling the educational expectations placed upon them. Finally, the chapter turns to issues of communitarianism in SfD provision, in turn discussing both the development of sporting communities around SfD NGOs themselves, and the relations between SfD and the external communities with which it engages.
Chapter 6 then explores young people's engagement in and responses to various dimensions of SfD provision. The chapter again addresses the limited extent to which young people's voices and perspectives are represented in the SfD literature by drawing on extensive data from those involved and engaged in SfD in various ways. The chapter first considers the individual and social value that young Zambians attach to participating in sport at various levels, before focusing on their experiences of and responses to the developmental aspects of SfD provision. The chapter finally examines the extent of young people's education and empowerment through sport, and the experiences of those young people whose involvement as peer leaders and interns extends beyond participation. Throughout the chapter we acknowledge the diversity of young people's experiences, and give particular attention to the complex discussions surrounding the capacity of SfD to stimulate either individual or collective social change.
Finally, in the concluding chapter, we present an integrated analysis of themes from across all of the preceding chapters. From the findings of our research, three key empirical themes are identified: multifaceted practices and experiences of Zambian SfD; associations between SfD and other development sectors; and relationships between local dimensions of SfD and broader and, where appropriate, global influences. Throughout, we appraise the contributions of locally grounded research to understandings of SfD. These reflections culminate in the final section of the chapter, where we consider the extent to which our particular approaches to knowledge production and ‘wide-lens’ research may have value to SfD scholarship. We conclude by advocating the value that in-depth and contextualized understandings can bring to both SfD research and practice.