First and foremost, I would like to thank the Wellcome
Trust for generously funding my research on the history of autism, and for
enabling this book to exist. I would also like to thank all of the people
who have supported the development of my work on child psychology and
autism. This book emerged out of ideas that first came to my mind whilst
conducting my PhD research on the history of child psychiatry at Cambridge.
Professor John Forrester (1949–2015) was a wonderful PhD supervisor
and a constant champion of, and inspiration for, my work. His encyclopaedic
knowledge of the history and philosophy of science helped me to frame my own
historical approach and encouraged me to enquire deeper into conceptual
history than I had previously planned. Dr Rhodri Hayward, likewise, has been
a fantastic mentor who has enabled me to develop a profound understanding of
psychological concepts in history whilst simultaneously encouraging me to
develop a strong historical grounding to my work. His comments on the first
draft were tremendously helpful and without them, the book would have been a
much lesser entity. I would also like to thank Professor Nikolas Rose for
examining my PhD, and for his support, comments and advice since then.
Thanks also to all the people who have read and engaged with the ideas in
the book at various stages and offered advice, in particular Professor
German Berrios, Dr Deborah Thom, Professor Edgar Jones, Dr Rob Kirk,
Professor Stuart Murray, Dr Stephen Casper, Dr Signe Nipper-Nielson, Dr Iris
Montero, and the anonymous reviewers of the manuscript.
I would also like to give a special thanks to all those
who agreed to be interviewed and those who assisted with enabling access to
archival material. In particular, I am grateful to Professor Sir Michael
Rutter, Professor Patrick Bolton and all the staff at the Social, Genetic
and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, as well as to Uta Frith for her
interview and for donating her archive. My thanks also to the staff of the
UK National Archives, King’s College London Archives, Bethlem Museum
of the Mind, Wellcome Trust Archives, the National Autistic Society and the
Royal Society Archives.
I would also like to thank everyone else who has
supported and encouraged me in this project, particularly Janet Evans, Dr
Chitra Sebastianpillai, Joanna Whitehouse, Barbara Chu and Professor David
Grahame Shane. Finally, I express my deepest gratitude to Rajiv Pillai, and
our son, Ashan Evans, for inspiring me every day that I wrote this book.
The Washington summit was useful to Lyndon B. Johnson mainly because it allowed him to impress upon the British the need for them to retain their traditional 'great power' role and also to allow him to bring the multilateral force (MLF) to a conclusion. Harold Wilson accepted the American view that Britain should preserve its current position in defence, telling the Cabinet on 11 December that 'the most encouraging fact about the conference was America's emphasis on Britain's world wide role'. Johnson not only wanted Wilson to maintain Britain's defence commitments, but to extend them into South Vietnam. After Wilson's visit to Washington, most observers, including the President, anticipated that he would face a serious challenge in explaining what he had agreed to in Washington to the House of Commons in the foreign affairs debate scheduled for 16-17 December.
From January to April 1965 the character of the Harold Wilson-Lyndon B. Johnson relationship traversed the spectrum from discord to cordiality. Discord erupted over the Vietnam War when Wilson telephoned Washington in the early hours of 11 February to suggest to Johnson an urgent visit to the White House. Wilson agreed to the US initiative, even though the visit might have caused a political storm in Britain had it become public knowledge - it would appear that the United States was dictating British economic measures. Wilson noted that unlike the December summit and the telephone conversation in February, Johnson did not make 'any suggestion of our committing troops to Vietnam nor even any reference to police, medical teams, or teams to handle the flow of refugees'. On 10 April, Patrick Dean advised that to help strengthen the Anglo-American relationship, Britain should provide more support for the United States in Vietnam.