Index

Abe, Tokuichiro 354
abuse 370371
ADI see Autism Diagnostic Interview
ADOS see Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule
adults with autism 314315, 351, 361, 417
aetiology see causes of autism
Africa 341343, 377378, 380381
age of onset 147148, 169170, 236, 315, 347
allowances (benefits) 251, 313
Amatruda, C. 109
amphetamine treatment 111
animal studies 117, 224, 400401
Anthony, Elwyn James 149151, 155, 156, 168173, 178, 220, 301
anthropology 63, 124
AQ see Autism Spectrum Quotient
Asperger’s syndrome 302, 349, 363364, 396, 416
attachment theory 24, 117, 224, 265266
maternal deprivation 24, 115118, 137, 170, 178, 233
theory challenged 197, 264, 266267, 423
Auden, George Augustus 63
auditory perception 222223, 225, 228, 230231
Australia 366
autism
as a diagnostic category
meaning of psychological concept 45, 1011, 23, 68, 83, 100, 302, 352, 395, 424426, 432
1911–1960 definitions 4145, 52, 7274, 119
Kanner’s definition 112114
1960s and 1970s definitions 203, 209, 237240, 259260
reversal in meaning 2, 1011, 189190, 237238
1980s and 1990s definitions 345348, 365
21st century definitions 402, 418420
term in common use 202, 372
origins of psychological concept 10, 4143
in relation to intelligence 15, 52, 93, 175, 218226, 277, 313314, 356, 360, 392, 396, 431
advantages of 202, 255, 259
autistic features 282284
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 363, 365
diagnostic instruments/scales 298299, 355360, 367, 379, 396
increase in frequency of 26, 315, 362368, 369, 371, 430431
international consensus 344349, 352
Lotter’s criteria 214216
nine points (Creak, 1961) 200201
in relation to Asperger’s syndrome 363364
Wing’s triad of impairments 276, 296301, 348, 376, 417
Autism Act (2009) 1, 14, 382, 416, 421
Autism Diagnostic Interview 356358, 359360, 396
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 358360, 367, 396
Autism Europe 351352, 369, 370371, 372, 373
Autism Speaks 375376, 401
Autism Spectrum Quotient 395
autistic features 282284, 311312
autistic spectrum 348, 363, 402
early conceptualisation as ‘continuum’ 301302
autoerotism 42, 43, 100
autonomy 15, 193, 226
and the Children’s Act 1989 (1991) 323, 324, 326
Baird, Gillian 366
Bakare, Muideen O. 377378, 381
Baron-Cohen, Simon 316, 362
diagnostic instruments devised by 367, 395
on the extreme male brain 396
on prevalence 12, 366, 379
on theory of mind 317320, 426
barrier hypothesis 169170
Bartak, Lawrence 254, 273
Bartolucci, Giampiero 273
Bateson, Gregory 124
Bayonas, Isabel 373374
behaviourism 95, 149, 305
Tinbergen on 306
treatment based on 207208
Beisler, Jean M. 291
Benda, Clemens 148, 175
Bender, Lauretta 108109, 111, 208
benefits (allowances) 251, 313
Benner, P. 200
Bergman, M. 148
Beveridge Report (1942) 108
Bick, Esther 117
biochemistry 390391
neurotransmitters 399
screening tests 156, 231232, 394
testosterone 396
vaccines 3, 384387, 388
Birch, Herbert 220
Bleuler, Eugen 10, 4143
Bolton, Patrick 362, 392, 393
Boston Higashi School 374375
Bowlby, John 19, 94
Bowlbyism 24, 115118, 137, 170, 178, 233
theory challenged 197, 264, 266267, 423
Braddock, Bessie 193
Bradley, Charles 111
Brain, Sir Russell 193, 275
Brazil 349, 379380
Brierley, Marjorie 105106
British Journal of Delinquency 174
British Psychoanalytical Society 50, 9697
British Psychological Society (BPS) 37, 69, 204, 256
Brown, M. J. 282
Bryson, Susan 353
Burt, Cyril
on ‘backward’ children 1819, 47
career 40, 46
on instinct theory 96, 97100, 423
on intelligence 16, 39, 47, 79
Cameron, Kenneth 142, 145, 149, 150151, 163, 200
Canada 353, 366
care orders 250
Carr, William Compton 192193, 209
‘Case Con’ 309
Cashmore, Alan 143
cause and effect 320321
causes of autism 387389
genetic studies of 391395, 396
early studies 175177
molecular 388, 397402, 429430
multifactorial 170, 276
maternal deprivation 24, 115118, 137, 170, 178, 233
theory criticised 197, 264, 266267, 423
stress of modern life 306, 350
vaccines 3, 384387, 388
central coherence 395
CHAT see Checklist for Autism in Toddlers
Chataway, Christopher 209210
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers 367, 396
child development theories 1315, 1820, 420433
19th & early 20th century 3440
Freud 42, 43, 106
1920s & 1930s 4445, 5255, 5960
1930s & 1940s 94108
1950s 140, 178180
Anthony 170, 171172
1960s & 1970s 220, 226227, 264269, 286
1980s 320321
1990s to present day 381, 395
limited research on ‘mentally defective’ subjects 1819, 33, 47, 7584
child guidance clinics 19, 4950, 78, 93, 141
childhood psychosis
Anthony on 168173
Cameron on 145
Klein and the Kleinians on 5456, 102
legal position in the 1950s 140143
at the Maudsley 142143, 150168
Norman on 122
terminology 52, 55, 70, 72, 125
childhood schizophrenia
compared with ‘mental deficiency’ 82, 146149, 174175
Creak on 7274, 126
diagnostic tests 159160
in the DSM
DSM-I 144
DSM-III (omitted) 345
Klein and the Kleinians on 5456, 121123
legal position in the 1950s 140143
treatment 111112, 121122, 162165, 430
in the USA 108114, 149, 430
child psychiatry 21, 23, 6874, 141142, 235, 308, 312
Children Act (1908) 34
Children Act (1948) 116, 137, 194
Children Act 1989 (1991) 323324, 326, 327
Children and Families Act (2014) 415, 416
Children and Young Persons Act (1969) 250
Children’s Handicaps, Behaviour and Skills (HBS) schedule 298299
children’s rights 5, 1415, 22, 415416
19th & early 20th century 3435
1948 Children Act 116, 137
1960s 191192, 202203, 218
1980s 321328
21st century 415, 419
internationally 340, 380381
Children of the Stars (documentary) 379
China 366, 377, 379
Chomsky, Noam 270271
Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act (1970) 251
Cialdella, P. 353
Clarke, A. D. B. 177
Claude, Henri 43
Clinkard, H. E. 198199
Cloake, Philip 71
Code of Good Practice on Prevention of Violence against Persons with Autism 370371
cognitive disorder of autism 220, 230231, 395
and language 270275
social impairment 25, 287, 291305, 395
conditioning 95, 207
Condon, William 287
convulsive therapy 111112, 208
Cox, Anthony 273
Creak, Mildred 7071, 7274, 126, 129n.3, 147, 200
criminal behaviour 6162, 174, 250, 268
Critical Autism Network 417418
cultural diversity 341343
Daily Life Therapy 374
De Jong, H. H. 69
dementia praecox (term applied to children) 55, 70
Denmark 343, 366
depression 103, 163
deprivation 262264, 265, 267
de Sanctis, Sante 70
Desorgher, Sandra and Max 388
developing countries 341343, 349350, 373374, 377381, 382383
developmental delay (as diagnostic category) 389
diagnostic bracket creep 355
in psychiatry generally 21, 144, 355
Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders 360
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
DSM-I 144
DSM-III 275, 344348
DSM-III-R 348
DSM-IV 364, 365
DSM-V 416417
Dickson, John Thompson 36
disability rights 369, 370373
DISCO see Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders
Doll, Edgar A. 158
dopamine 399
Down, John Langdon 35
Down’s syndrome 290, 299
draw a man test 160
Drever, James 99
Drillien, Cecil M. 276
drug treatments 111, 136, 208
DSM see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Dwork, Deborah 11
Earl, C. J. 8182
Edgell, Beatrice 59
Education Act (1944) 140141, 199, 205206
Education Act (1981) (1983) 307, 310312
Educational Guidance Centre (Brixton, London) 258, 341
‘educationally subnormal’ 253, 307
educational psychologists 256259, 310
Education (Handicapped Children) Act (1970) 16, 252
Education, Health and Care Plans 415
education policy
19th and early 20th century 34
1920s and 1930s 62
1940s and 1950s 140141
1960s 199, 205206, 209210, 416
1970s 251254, 258259, 261
1980s 307, 310313
1990s to present day 415, 428
progressive/permissive schools 51, 165166, 254
special schools 4547, 165, 167, 205206, 252, 254
EEG see electroencephalography
egocentrism 52, 104, 162, 171172, 318319
Eickhoff, Louise 121122, 148149
electroconvulsive therapy 111112, 208
electroencephalography 156, 270
Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (1914) 46
Ellis, Lucy 282
Emerson, Peggy 265266
employment law 372373
encapsulated secondary autism 234
encephalitis lethargica 71
environmental causes 306, 388389
epidemiological data (prevalence)
1960s 212, 216
1970s 310, 343
1980s 353354
1990s 364, 365366
21st century 366, 377, 379
Asperger’s syndrome 363364
increasing 26, 315, 362368, 369, 371, 430
lack of data following 1959 Act 198200
epidemiological studies 11, 211, 255, 305, 390, 424
control groups 290291
fail to support Wakefield’s claims 386387
international 341343, 349350, 352354, 365366, 377380, 383384
Lotter 214218, 341343
Rutter and Tizard 212214, 260262
Wing and Gould 297301, 310
eugenics 35, 37, 3839, 47, 75, 94
Europe 351352, 369
see also Autism Europe; individual countries
evacuation, war-time 94, 116
evolutionary theory 36, 83
Ewing, Alexander 78
extreme male brain 396397
Eyal, Gil 2, 389
Eysenck, Hans 138139
factor analysis 9899
false belief tasks 317, 318319
families
breakdown of 9394, 267
genetic studies 391, 392393
see also parents
family law 322327
fantasy, infantile 1011, 42, 237238, 280
‘feeble-minded’ 46, 75, 194
feeding difficulties 101
Ferster, Charles 207
Festival of Youth (1937) 9293
Feversham Report (1939) 93
fiction, autism in 1, 360
Fildes, Lucy 7677, 78
First World War 48, 70
5-HTT (serotonin transporter) 398399
Flavell, John 286
folate 388
Folstein, Susan 391
Forrester, John 89
Fortes, Meyer 79
Foubert, André 370
Fox, Evelyn 50
fragile X syndrome 394
Framework for Communication programme 375
France 69, 353
Freeman, Walter 111
Freud, Anna 97, 103, 104, 105106, 123, 178
Freud, Sigmund 42, 43, 96, 106
Friedlander, Kate 103
Frith, Chris 429
Frith, Uta 228230, 306, 316320, 360, 395
Fuentes, Joaquin 373
Galton, Francis 3839, 423
Gardner, Dorothy 126127
Gardner, George 149
gender differences 396397
Gerland, Gunilla 370
Geschwind, Daniel 402
Gesell, Arnold 19, 57, 58, 109, 118
Gillberg, Christopher 352353, 354, 363364, 393, 394, 402
Glover, Edward 56, 6162, 103104, 120121, 174
Goddard, Henry H. 57, 158
Goldfarb, William 170, 220
Gomes, Paulyane 380
Goodenough (draw a man) test 160
‘good enough mother’ 120, 128
Gould, Judith 297301
governmentality 78, 138
government policy/legislation 1415, 16, 1718, 22, 25
19th and early 20th century 11, 3435, 4548
1920s and 1930s 12, 7576
1940s and 1950s 108, 114116, 137, 140143, 167168
1960s and 1970s 192200, 205206, 209210, 218, 248251
1980s 306315, 321328
1990s to present day 381382, 415, 416
Graham, Philip 308
Grey Walter, W. 270
Guhathakurta, Sabhrangshu 399
Habermas, Jürgen 288
Hacking, Ian 8, 14, 27n.18
Hadow Committee 62
hallucinations/hallucinatory thought
Bleuler and Freud on 10, 4344, 52
Kleinians on 53, 5657
Rorschach on 159
theories abandoned 235238, 279280
Handicapped Pupils and School Health Regulations (1945) 141
Happé, Francesca 362, 395
Harlow, Harry 224
Hayes, R. A. 228
Hazlitt, Victoria 59
HBS schedule 298299
Head, Henry 108
hearing (auditory perception) 222223, 225, 228, 230231
Heimann, Paula 101, 106107
Held, Richard 227228
Hendrick, Harry 1112
Herd, Henry 79
Hermelin, Beate 177, 219224, 228230, 290
Heuyer, Georges 69
Hilliard, L. T. 175, 176
Hirschberg, J. Cotter 110
Hubley, Penelope 288
human relations (Tavistock) model 20, 117, 128129, 136138, 139, 192
critiques of 145, 234, 239, 264, 303304, 320
human rights 340, 351, 369, 370373
Husserl, Edmund 288
ICD see International Classification of Diseases
Iceland 365
‘idiocy’/‘idiots’ 3536, 46, 75, 194
Imagining Autism project 418
‘imbeciles’ 46, 75, 177, 194
imperialism 9293, 190191
India 349350, 373, 380, 399
industrial psychology 128, 137138
‘ineducability’ 4647, 75, 194, 210
Ingram, T. T. S. 275
Inhelder, Bärbel 286
inkblot (Rorschach) test 159
‘in need of care and protection’ 114, 197, 340
instinct theory 6268, 179
contrasted to behaviourism 94100, 149
controversial discussions (Klein and Freud) 97, 100108, 123
social instinct 3738, 67
Institute of Child Psychology 51
Institute of Psychiatry 13, 141142
Occupational Psychiatry Research Unit 146147, 174, 212, 225226
institutionalisation
of children generally 116
of ‘mentally defective’ children 12
compulsory 36, 4647, 7576, 8081, 193194, 196
discretionary 167168, 196197
ending of the practice 12, 136, 167, 194196, 257
psychological problems caused by 118, 204205, 267, 419
see also special schools
insulin coma treatment 111, 163
integration into mainstream schools 311312
intelligence tests 15, 1617, 3940, 47, 7980, 158, 218219
shortcomings 220, 225226
International Classification of Diseases
1st edition 144
6th edition 344
10th edition 348349
internet use 3, 374, 386
intersubjectivity 286289
In Whose Best Interests? (MIND/Cobden Trust) 324
Ireland 381
Isaacs, Susan
on behaviourism 95
career 50, 60
on childhood schizophrenia/psychosis 56, 102
on infantile phantasies 64, 101102, 105
on regression 106
on social development 18, 53, 5859, 6061, 62, 65, 66
Isaksen, Jørn 367
Jackson, Lydia 125
Janet, Pierre 42
Japan 343, 354, 365, 366
Jordan, Rita 369
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (formerly Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia) 269270, 284285
Jung, Carl 139
juvenile delinquency 6162, 174, 250, 268
Kanner, Leo 41, 70, 112114, 148, 177
Kirman, Brian 175177, 232
Klein, Melanie 5051, 5356, 64, 121
controversial discussions 97, 100108, 123, 266
Koffka, Kurt 58
Kolvin, Israel 236238
König, Karl 165
Kraepelin, Emil 69, 147
Kramer, Peter 355
Kramer, Yale 159
Kushlik, Albert 193, 255
Laing, R. D. 136137
language
disorders in children 161162, 222223, 229230, 272275, 277278, 283
measurement of ability 273, 291
speech therapy 207, 259, 278, 369
theories of development of 270272, 287288
Latin America 349, 373374, 379380
Lay, R. A. Q. 74
‘learning difficulties’ 307
learning theory 95, 207
Le Couteur, Ann 356
legal situation see government policy/legislation
Leonard, Helen 367
Leslie, Alan 316, 317321
Levitt, Pat 402
Lewis, Aubrey 138, 174
Li, Ning 377
liberalism 190191, 226, 295, 363
Light, Paul 427
lobotomy 111
Local Authority Social Service Act (1970) 249250, 255256
Local Government Act (1929) 49, 71
Lord, Catherine 356
Lotter, Victor 211, 214218, 235, 341343
Lovaas, I. O. 208
Lowenfeld, Margaret 5051, 6465, 66, 124, 159160
LSD treatment 208
magical thought 44
Mahler, Margaret 110
‘maladjustment’ 93, 141, 144145, 192, 253
males 396
Mamelle, M. 353
Marks, Lara 11
Martin, J. A. M. 230, 278
maternal deprivation 24, 115118, 137, 170, 178, 233
theory challenged 197, 264, 266267, 423
mathematical skill 395
Maudsley Hospital
1920s and 1930s 49, 6869, 7073, 111
1950s (Child Psychotic Clinic) 138139, 142143, 150168
1960s 207, 211218, 231233
1970s 277282
1980s 303304
discharge procedures 165168
observational studies 150155, 278279
psychology of industrial relations 138
referrals to 49, 7172, 143, 277
testing regimes 138139, 156162, 231232, 277
treatment regimes 111, 162165, 207
McDougall, William 3738, 39, 96
Mead, Margaret 63, 124
measurement systems see tests
media coverage 118, 119, 218, 231, 360362, 379
vaccine controversy 386
Meldrum, Bill 370
‘mental deficiency’ 12
definitions 33, 3536, 46
term abandoned 194
distinct from mental illness 36, 4950, 82, 146149, 174175
genetic and/or congenital causes 175177
institutionalisation 4647, 7576, 8081, 167168, 193194
legislation 14, 4547, 75, 116, 141, 167168, 194
research 174
absence of 1819, 7584, 107108, 128129, 173
Mental Deficiency Act (1913) 14, 4547, 167168
Mental Health Act (1959) 190, 191, 194196, 422
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 288
metabolic disorders 232
methodology used in this book 69
Middle East 350, 378
mirror neurons 426428
Mittler, Peter 225
MMR vaccine 3, 384387
Moncrieff, Alan 126127
Montessori, Maria 226
Moreno-De-Luca, D. 401
Morgan, Conwy Lloyd 95
Morgenstern, Sophie 69
Morton, John 316, 360
mothers
‘good enough’ 120, 128
Klein’s views 55
maternal deprivation 24, 115118, 137, 170, 178, 233
theory challenged 197, 264, 266267, 423
‘place is in the home’ 115116, 137
working 265, 372373
Mott, Frederick 69
mouse model of autism 400401
MRC Developmental Psychology Unit (later Cognitive Development Unit) 228, 316, 320
MRC Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Committee 213
MRC Unit for Research in Occupational Adaptation (later Social Psychiatry Research Unit) 146147, 174, 212, 225226
Murray, Stuart 3, 360
Nadesan, Madjia 3
NAS see Society for Autistic Children
National Health Service, establishment 108, 115
National Insurance Acts (1970 and 1971) 251
neoliberalism 325, 339340, 432
neurodevelopmental disorders 275276, 347, 365
neurodiversity movement 417418, 419, 432, 433n.3
neurotransmitters 399
Newson, John and Elizabeth 268269, 286287, 289, 304, 309, 313314, 314315
Nigeria 342, 377378, 381
Norman, Elizabeth 122123
nurses in the Maudsley clinic 151154
object relations theory 117, 120, 128
Occupational Psychiatry Research Unit (later Social Psychiatry Research Unit) 146147, 174, 212, 225226
occupational therapy 164165
O’Connor, Neil 174, 214, 219224, 228, 290
Oedipus complex 53
Oftedal, Dagny 164
O’Gorman, Gerald 147
operant conditioning 207
Ornitz, Edward 231
parents
advocacy
on causes of autism 388
for research 375376, 389, 401
and care decisions
challenging 166167, 199, 202, 314, 324, 325
responsible for 167168, 196197, 202
employment rights 372373
see also mothers
Pasamanick, Ben 212
Pavitt, Lawrence 252
Pearson, Karl 38
Penrose, Lionel 79, 175176
Percy Report (1957) 193, 194
personality tests 138139, 175, 211
pervasive developmental disorders 345346, 347348, 364365
phantasy, infantile
Glover on 120121
Kleinians on 5356, 6467, 101102, 130n.23
Rorschach test 159
theories abandoned 233238, 278279
phenotypical model of autism 392, 396397, 403
Piaget, Jean 19, 41, 4445, 53, 5960, 156, 180, 286
on egocentricity 52, 162, 319
on language development 271272
Pick, Herbert 227
play
Kleinians on 54, 6566, 102, 105
symbolic 280, 289290
play therapy 374375
Plowden Report (1967) 271
poverty 262264, 265, 267
Power, Michael 262263
preschool children
learning goals 428
screening 307308, 367, 396
prevalence see epidemiological data (prevalence)
Price, G. P. 314
primary narcissism 43, 54, 100, 171, 419
progressive/permissive schools 51, 165166, 254
propfschizophrenia 147
psychiatry (child psychiatry) 21, 23, 6874, 141142, 235, 308, 312
psychoanalytic theory 5, 6162, 119129, 417, 425
psycho-dynamics 99
psychological tests see tests
‘psychopathic disorder’ 194
psychosis see childhood psychosis
psychotherapy 106, 163164, 206, 370
Quirk Report (1972) 259
Rain Man (film) 360
Rappoport, Judith 418
refusal of treatment 324
regression 106
Reichow, Brian 382383
Renshaw, Samuel 227
research
importance of British research in history of autism 4, 913, 1920, 2223, 26, 349
not done using ‘mentally deficient’ children 1819, 7584, 107108, 128129, 173
parent advocacy 375376, 389, 401
residential care see institutionalisation
Richards, B. W. 147148
Richards, Martin 427
Rickman, John 150
Rimland, Bernard 202, 305
Romanian orphans 419
Romberg test 159
Rorschach (inkblot) test 159
Rose, Nikolas 7, 20, 36, 61, 128, 138, 339, 420–421
Royal College of Psychiatrists 312
Rudolph Steiner schools 165166, 254
Rutter, Michael
on autism and adult schizophrenia 23
on autistic adults 314
on deficiency of fantasy 237238, 280
on deprivation 262, 267
on diagnosis 281283, 355356
in the DSM 344, 345, 347, 419420
on education methods 254
epidemiological studies 213214, 260261
on genetics 391, 392393, 393394
as a journal editor 269270, 284285
on language and cognitive defects 270, 272273, 278
at the Maudsley Hospital 212, 277
on quasi-autism in Romanian orphans 419
on social development 266268, 432
SAC see Society for Autistic Children
Sally–Anne test 318319
Sander, Louis 287
sand trays 160
Sanua, Victor 349350
Scattoni, Maria Luisa 400
Schaffer, Rudolf 265266
Schilder, Paul 108109
schizophrenia, adult 69, 124
Bleuler on 10, 42
at the Maudsley 146147, 297
relationship with autism 235, 302, 345, 418
treatment 136
Schopler, Eric 284, 356, 375
Scotland 46, 196, 249
Scott, Clifford 163
Searle, Nina 66
Second World War 9294, 108, 111, 116
Seebohm Report (1968) 249250, 308
Segal, Stanley 206
sense perception
in child development 226228
defective in autism 228231, 233
Fildes on 7778
Hermelin and Frith on 228230
Hermelin and O’Connor on 219224
Tustin on 234
Wing, J. on 225
Wing, L. on 291293
serotonin (5-HT) transporter 398
‘severely subnormal’ 194, 252
sex differences 396397
Shattuck, Paul 2, 389
Sherlock, Edward Birchall 80
Shrubsall, F. C. 71
sight (visual perception) 220, 222, 225, 227, 229
Simmons, Vivienne 310
social brain 426, 429
social deprivation 262264, 265, 267
social development 420433
1900 to 1960 3740, 48, 5168, 8384
1960s and 1970s 265269
Frith et al. on 319320
impaired 25, 287, 291305, 395
measurement scales 5759, 158159, 298299, 304305, 355360
Newsons on 286287
Lorna Wing on 293294
social empathy 304
social exclusion see institutionalisation
social instinct 3738, 67, 96
see also instinct theory
Social Psychiatry Research Unit (formerly Occupational Psychiatry Research Unit) 146147, 174, 212, 225226
Social Security Act (1975) 251
social workers, psychiatric 117118, 137, 249
social work services 25, 248250, 308309, 314, 322
Society for Autistic Children 201202, 205207, 208209, 255
National Autistic Society 252, 309, 366, 374
sociology
in the 1970s 264269
hierarchical views of society 37, 75, 94, 135136
liberalism 190191, 226, 295, 363
neoliberalism 325, 339340, 432
Son Rise programme 375
South Africa 373
South America 349, 373374, 379380
Soviet Union 220
special schools
1900–1930 4547
1950s 165, 167
1960s/1970s 205206, 252, 254
speech see language
SPELL programme 375
statementing 310311, 382, 415
statistical analysis 89, 126127, 211
Burt’s factorial analysis 98100
of delinquency 173174
in eugenics 3839
styles of reasoning 6, 89, 17
‘subnormal’ 194, 196, 253
Sugiyama, Toshiro 354
Summerfield Report (1968) 256257
Sweden 352353, 354
symbolic thought
lacking in autism 1011, 272, 280, 290
Piaget on 44, 286
symbolic play 280, 289290
tactile perception 222, 226227
Tavistock Clinic 49, 117118, 127, 136, 139
Tavistock model of human relations 20, 117, 128129, 136138, 139, 192
critiques of 145, 234, 239, 264, 303304, 320
TEACCH programme 375
testosterone 396
tests 431
ADI and ADOS 355360, 367, 379, 396
AQ 395
biochemical/physiological 156, 221, 231232, 394
CHAT 367
HBS schedule 298299
intelligence 15, 1617, 3940, 47, 7980, 158, 218219
shortcomings 220, 225226
language ability 273, 291
at the Maudsley hospital 138139, 156162, 231232, 277
personality tests 138139, 175, 211
sense perception 220223
social development scales 5759, 158159, 298299, 304305
theory of mind 318319
Thatcher, Margaret 261, 325, 339
theory of mind 162, 317320, 365, 419, 426
Thorndike, E. L. 95, 99
three mountains test 162, 318
Tinbergen, Nikolas 306, 350
Titmuss, Richard 249
Tizard, Barbara 267
Tizard, Jack 174, 178, 196197, 204205, 210, 432
epidemiological studies 212, 213214
touch perception 222, 226227
training 382
child psychiatrists 70, 308, 341
educational psychologists 256257
psychiatric social workers 117118
social workers 249, 309
teachers 206207, 218
trainspotters 361
transference 105
treatment
behaviourist methods 207208
convulsive therapy 111112, 208
in developing countries 382383
drug treatments 111, 136, 208
educational methods
1960s and 1970s 206207, 254255, 308
1990s to present day 369370, 374375, 382383
insulin coma/shock 111, 163
lobotomy 111
LSD 208
occupational therapy 164165
for older individuals 315
physiotherapy 121122
of preschool children 308
psychotherapy 163164, 206, 370
Tredgold, Alfred Frank 176177
Trevarthen, Colwyn 287288
triad of impairments
Anthony on 168169
in mice 400
Rutter on 281283
Lorna Wing’s version 276, 296301, 348, 376, 417
Tsai, Luke Y. 291
Tustin, Frances 233234
twin studies 391, 393
unconscious mind 5, 427
see also instinct theory
Underwood Report (1955) 145, 213
United Nations (UN)
on autism awareness 376
on human rights 340, 351
USA
behaviourism 95, 149
childhood schizophrenia 108114, 149, 430
‘developmental disorders’ 275
‘mental deficiency’ and schizophrenia 148149, 175
parental advocacy 202, 375376
prevalence of autism 343, 366
social development tests (1920s/1930s) 5758, 158159
treatment methods 111112, 207208, 374375
vaccines 3, 384387, 388
Valentine, C. W. 63
Venables, Peter 146147, 221, 350
Vernon, Phillip 99
video use 287288, 359
Vineland Social Maturity Test 57, 158159
visual perception 220, 222, 225, 227, 229
Vivanti, Donatta 370
Wakefield, Andrew 384386
WAO see World Autism Organization
Warnock Report (1978) 261, 307, 310
Warren, Wilfred 235
Waterhouse, Lynn 387
Watson, John Broadus 95
Wazana, Ashley 367
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 158
whirling test 109, 159
Whitmore, Kingsley 199, 213, 275
WHO see World Health Organization
Williams, Christopher 370
Wilson, Mary 263264
Wiltshire, Stephen 361
Wing, John 202204, 206, 211, 225, 263, 297
Wing, Lorna 202
on Asperger’s syndrome 302
and DSM-III definition of autism 346347, 348
on education 202204, 206, 210
on prevalence 3, 297301, 310, 363
public engagement 231
on social impairment 291304, 360
on symbolic play 289290
on triad of impairments 276, 296301, 348
Winnicott, Donald 50, 118, 119120, 123, 137, 145, 233
WISC see Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Wöhr, Marcus 400
Wolkind, Steven 267
women
increased rights in 1960s 191, 196
‘place is in the home’ 115116, 137
as professional psychologists 51, 59, 67
see also mothers
Wood Report (1929) 75, 82
Woolf, Peter H. 287
World Autism Awareness Day 376
World Autism Organisation 370, 373374
World Health Organization 136, 264, 350
World War I 48, 70
World War II 9294, 108, 111, 116
Wright, Suzanne 376
Wulffsberg, Hans 373
Yerkes, Robert 95
Young, Sir George 309
Yudkin, Simon 265
Zaporozhets, A. V. 220, 227

The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 196 174 13
PDF Downloads 89 73 7

Related Content