The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.
Christine Holmberg is the director of a research group on ‘health services research’ with a particular focus on risk, health decision-making, illness experience and science and technology studies at the Institute of Public Health, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. She holds a doctorate from the Humboldt-University Berlin in Anthropology and a Master of Public Health in Epidemiology from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her most recent publications include ‘Gaining Control over Breast Cancer Risk: Transforming vulnerability, uncertainty, and the future through clinical trial participation – a qualitative study’, published in Sociology of Health and Illness (2015).
Stuart Blume is Emeritus Professor of Science & Technology Studies at the University of Amsterdam and a member of the Department of Anthropology. He worked previously at the University of Sussex, the OECD in Paris, the London School of Economics, and in various British government departments, including the Cabinet Office (1975–77), and from 1977 to 1980 as Research Secretary of the Committee on Social Inequalities in Health (the ‘Black Committee’). From 2009 to 2012 he was ‘Professor 2’ at SUM, University of Oslo, Norway; and in 2013–14 Prometeo fellow at the University of Cuenca, Ecuador. Publications include Insight and Industry: The Dynamics of Technological Change in Medicine (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1992) and (with Sidsel Roalkvam, Desmond McNeill et al.) Protecting the World's Children. Immunisation Policies and Practices (Oxford University Press, 2013).
Paul Greenough is Emeritus Professor of South Asian history at the University of Iowa and also has an appointment in the Department of Community and Behavioral Health. He has published numerous chapters and articles on the social history of disease, welfare and environment in Bengal and India. He is the founding director of his university's Global Health Studies Program and the author or co-editor of four books, including Nature in the Global South: Environmental Projects in South and Southeast Asia (Duke University Press, 2004) and Against Stigma: Global Studies in Caste and Race Since Durban (Orient BlackSwan, 2009).
Niels Brimnes is Associate Professor in history and South Asian studies at Aarhus University, Denmark. He is currently head of the Department of History. He has written a number of articles on the introduction of western medicine in early colonial India and on the history of tuberculosis control in the twentieth century, both in India and on a global scale. He has recently published Languished Hopes. Tuberculosis, the State and International Assistance in Twentieth-century India (Orient BlackSwan, 2016).
Dora Vargha is lecturer in medical humanities at the Department of History and Centre for Medical History at the University of Exeter. Her work explores global health history from an Eastern European perspective. She has published work on the Cold War politics of polio in Hungary, the history of internationalism and disability history. She is founding editor of Central and Eastern European History of Medicine Network.
Eun Kyung Choi is a Research Professor at the Institute of Medical History and Culture at Seoul National University Hospital. She graduated from Seoul National University College of Medicine and received a PhD in History of Medicine. She also teaches History of Medicine and Medical Humanities in Seoul National University and Kangwon National University. Her recent publications are (with Young A. Lee), ‘The Body Image and Medical Knowledge of the Korean Public in the 1930s through the Medical Advice Column ‘Jisang byeongwon (Hospital on Paper) ’, Journal of the Korean History of Science Society, 37(1) (2015), pp. 235–64; and ‘Mobilization of Medical Professionals and Establishment of Physical Standards for Conscription in 1950s–1960s South Korea’, The Journal of Humanities, 36(4) (2015), pp. 231–58.
Young-Gyung Paik is an Associate Professor at Korea National Open University and has an appointment also in the Science, Technology and Policy Program at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. She has published widely on the development of medical technologies and its gendered implications in South Korea. She has contributed chapters to New Millennium South Korea: Neoliberal Capitalism and Transnational Movements (Routledge, 2010) and Reconfiguring Reproduction: Feminist Health Perspectives on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (Zubaan Books, 2015).
Ana María Carrillo is a historian of medicine at the Department of Public Health of the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. She has published more than sixty articles and chapters on the history of epidemics and public health in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Mexico. Her book about the birth of public health in Mexico is in press. She is a member of the National System of Researchers.
Jaime Larry Benchimol is a senior researcher at the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; professor with the Graduate Program in the History of Science and Health at the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz; and professor with the Graduate Program in Living Conditions and Health Situations in Amazonia at the Leônidas e Maria Deane Institute in Manaus. He was science editor of História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos from January 1997 to March 2015 and continues to serve on the journal's editorial board. His research and teaching focus chiefly on the history of the life sciences and the history of tropical medicine and public health. He continues to be interested in an earlier research subject, urban history.
Julia Yongue is a professor in the Faculty of Economics of Hosei University in Tokyo, Japan. Her research combines the histories of business, pharmacy and the impact of health policy on the development of the pharmaceutical industry in Japan. Her most recent work is a co-edited volume, Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical History, published in Japanese in 2016. She currently serves as a council member of the Japanese Society for History of Pharmacy and the Business History Society of Japan.
Andrea Stöckl is a medical sociologist/anthropologist at the Norwich Medical School at the University of East Anglia. She has published on the politics of vaccination policies, especially in Europe and in Great Britain, with a focus on women's health issues. Her other interests lie in the ethics of care, the emotional aspects of care and controversial surgery on women, such as hymen reconstruction and female genital mutilation. She is interested on the intersections of ethics and social lives.
Anna Smajdor is Associate Professor of Practical Philosophy at the University of Oslo. Her research interests cover a range of ethical questions related to developments in biomedical science and she has published widely in this field. She is the co-author (with Ruth Deech) of From IVF to Immortality: Controversy in the Era of Reproductive Technology (Oxford University Press, 2008).
Britta Lundgren is Professor of Ethnology at the Department of Culture and Media Studies at Umeå University, Sweden. She has been the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and the founder and director of the National Graduate School for Gender Studies and has also led the interdisciplinary research programme ‘Challenging Gender’. She has published works on friendship, grief and mourning, family and gender, academic culture, and the disciplinary history of ethnology. Her interest now lies in the field of medical humanities and she is working on a four-year project focusing the A(H1N1) pandemic – Epidemics, Vaccination and the Power of Narratives – financed by the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation in Sweden.
Martin Holmberg is an MD and associate professor specialising in infectious diseases. He has worked many years as a clinical doctor and then as senior medical officer at the National Board of Health and Welfare, the authority that was responsible for pandemic preparedness and for coordinating the response to the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic. He is now retired but is serving as a medical expert in the project, Epidemics, Vaccination and the Power of Narratives, at Umeå University.
Elisha P. Renne is a professor in the Department of Afroamerican and African Studies (DAAS) and in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She has published numerous articles and chapters on African ethnology and infectious disease; fertility and reproductive health; gender relations; and the anthropology of development. She has also authored or co-edited seven books, which include Population and Progress in a Yoruba Town (Edinburgh University Press, 2003) and The Politics of Polio in Northern Nigeria (Indiana University Press, 2010).
William Muraskin is Professor of Urban Studies, Queens College, City University of New York. He is the author of five books on the politics surrounding the formation of international health policy concerning vaccine development and delivery for the children of the South: Polio Eradication and Its Discontents: A Historian's Journey Through an International Public Health (Un)Civil War (Orient BlackSwan, 2012); The Crusade to Immunize the World's Children: the Origin of the Bill and Melinda Gates Children's Vaccine Program and the Birth of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Global BioBusiness Books, 2005); Vaccines for Developing Economies: Who Will Pay?, edited, rearranged, and supplemented by William Muraskin (The Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute, 2001); The Politics of International Health: the Children's Vaccine Initiative and the Struggle to Develop Vaccines for the Third World (State University of New York Press, 1998); and The War Against Hepatitis B: a History of the International Task Force on Hepatitis B Immunization (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995). Most of his funding over the years has been from the Rockefeller Foundation.