From constitutional to political asymmetry
Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics
in Federalism and democratisation in Russia

Russia's constitutional asymmetry has prevented the development of universal norms of citizenship and human rights in the federation. Regional and republican elites have been able to adopt constitutions/charters and other laws which violate the federal constitution. And a number of the bilateral treaties signed between Moscow and the regions have sanctioned the transfer of unconstitutional rights and powers to the republics. This chapter examines the problems of consolidating democracy in Russia's regions and republics. It discusses the various ways in which presidents and governors have been able to gain a dominant control over their political systems. In particular, it examines the way in which leaders of the ethnic republics have been able to maintain power by manipulating the electoral system.


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