Index
in Human rights and the borders of suffering

INDEX

Note: an ‘n’ after a page number denotes a footnote.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Commission (ATSIC) 170–1
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social
Justice Commission 165
Aboriginal Australians see Indigenous Australians
Aboriginal Medical Services 183, 187–8, 195
Aboriginal Tent Embassy 175
abuse 7, 43, 56, 79, 159, 201, 209–10
causes 14, 65, 81
social structure 13, 34, 63, 203
state 34, 86, 121, 126, 149, 162–3, 201, 202–3
cultural specificity 77–8
defined 4
economic 81, 144, 202
legal mechanisms 107, 205–6
patterns of 13, 123, 128, 209
recognition of 15, 126, 206–7
as basis of human rights 79–80
responses to 11, 15, 95, 122–3, 159, 211
difficulties of 8, 9
international 12, 202–3
long-term dialogue 90–1
role of state 86, 101, 107, 121–3, 149, 159, 201, 205–6
systemic 202
and Aboriginal health 162–3
China 121, 126
East Timor 130, 143, 144
see also suffering
activism 34, 79
Aditjondro, George148
Alfonsin, Raoul 159
Amnesty International 164
anthropology 59–60, 78–9
Apodeti 133, 136, 139, 140
Argentina 159
‘Asian Way’ debate 6, 98
abuse 77, 79–80, 81
colonialism 78–9
community 80–1, 201
cultural arguments 78–9
East–West dichotomies 79–81
economic verses civil rights 76, 81
explained 76, 78
human rights recognition 79–80, 81
individualism76, 80–1
origins of 76–7
perceptions of 76, 77, 79
political issues 77, 78, 79
universalism–relativism debate 79, 80, 81, 82
Western assumptions of superiority 77–8, 81
Asia Watch 45
ATSIC (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission) 170–1
Australia 167–8
and East Timor 134, 142, 152
support for integration 136, 142
see also Indigenous Australian health
authoritarianism 76, 104–5
BAKIN 138–9
Beijing Spring 95, 97, 102–3, 110, 118
criticisms of students’ motives 111–12, 113, 114, 120
by Liu Xiaobo 116, 120
demands 94, 100, 101, 113, 114
participation and accountability 112, 115, 117
democracy, understanding of 111, 113, 117–19, 120
ambivalent attitude of intellectuals 117–19
hunger strikes 109, 115, 116, 120
mythologising of students 110–12, 116–17
dangers 111–12
official response 102–3, 110–11
patriotic nature of student movement 115, 117
role of students 110–21
and martyrdom 99, 111, 116–17
as ‘revolutionary’ 116–17
role of workers 110
scope 94, 110, 127n1
support for 94, 101, 121
Western interpretation 111, 113
Belo, Monsignor 145
Bringing Them Home Report 165
see also Indigenous Australian disadvantage
Brown, Chris 62, 63–4, 65–6
Caetano dictatorship 133
capitalism 26, 29, 98, 100
case studies 17–18, 90–2
see also East Timor; Indigenous Australian health; Tiananmen Square massacre
Catholic Church 23
and East Timor 131, 133, 134, 148, 156
see also Christendom; religious traditions
CERD (Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination) 167
Chen Xianda 98, 99
childhood 29–30
China 98, 119
China Democratic Party 97
communism 104, 106, 112–14
Communist Party 97, 103–8
need for reform 123, 124
Confucianism 76, 78, 114–15, 116, 126–7
Cultural Revolution 101, 108
democracy 111, 113, 117–19, 120
Democracy Movement 94, 108–9, 119, 123
Democracy Wall 115, 119
dialogue 114, 115–16
economic uncertainty 105, 106, 112–13, 115
erosion of social values 106, 108, 112
income disparity 105–6, 112–13
international relations 96, 97–8
leadership 102–3, 105, 106, 107, 116, 197–8
modernisation 96, 103–4, 106, 108
corruption 106, 108
economic 95, 96, 105, 115
employment 112–13
impact on students 112, 115
and leadership 104–5, 107
and rights 106, 108–9, 124
standing of intellectuals 112–13, 115
urban reforms 112–13
official attitude to human rights 97–8, 99
participation in local politics 119–20
People’s Liberation Army 110, 117
crisis of loyalty 109–10
role in Tiananmen Square massacre 94, 101
reform 107, 114–15, 126
expectations of 107, 112
and intellectuals 107, 114–15, 117–19
models for 104–5
response to sanctions 96–7
rights 93, 106, 123–4, 125, 126
citizens 98–9, 107
to subsistence 98, 108
social welfare 104, 105, 106
state, role of 98, 102–10, 115
students 114, 120, 121
desire for dialogue 115–16
economic change 112, 114
workers 110, 111, 114, 115, 119, 120, 127n4
see also Tiananmen Square massacre
Christendom 24–5, 58
see also Catholic Church; religious traditions
church missions 171–2, 181
citizenship 69
construction of 173, 188, 191
and Indigenous Australians 173–4, 180, 182–3, 190–2, 193, 196, 208
citizens rights 86, 91, 93, 98–9, 101, 125, 199
civil rights 96, 107
prioritised over economic 34, 76, 80, 81
civil society 26, 29, 33, 201
Cold War 50, 98
and East Timor 129, 136–7
and Tiananmen Square massacre 93, 96, 97
colonialism 34–5, 59–60, 82, 202
impact on culture 78–9
and indigenous peoples 167, 186–7
universalism–relativism debate 55, 59, 60
colonisation 9, 195
and ‘Asian Way’ debate 76–7
East Timor 130–3
Indonesia 129–30, 132
see also decolonisation
Commission of Investigation into Human Rights Violations (Indonesia) 154
communism
China 104, 106, 112–14
and East Timor 136–7, 138
see also Marxism
Communist Party (China) 97, 104, 108
leadership 105, 106
need for reform 123, 124
role of 103, 107
communitarianism see ‘Asian Way’ debate
community 18, 67, 80–1, 206, 207
‘Asian Way’ debate 80–1, 201
in Indigenous Australia 170, 187, 208
political 130, 188, 191
rebuilding after abuse 21–2, 91, 128, 209
and rights 87, 206–7
state as 63–4, 80, 88n5, 208
Confucianism 76, 78, 114–15, 116, 126–7
contractarianism 20, 22, 25, 35–6, 47–8, 86
and utilitarianism 23–4
Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 167
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation 165
critical theory 18n4, 50, 67, 68
cultural imperialism 77, 79
Cultural Revolution 101, 108
culture 65, 69, 74, 78, 90–1
‘Asian Way’ debate 77, 78, 80
impact of colonialism 78–9, 131
‘Dare to Die’ corps 111
decolonisation 60, 179
and ‘Asian Way’ debate 76–7
East Timor 130, 132, 133, 161
and terra nullius 195–6
see also colonisation
definitions 9, 15, 19, 21, 35, 83, 206
democracy 91, 155
see also China, democracy; liberal democracy
democratic capitalism 101–2
Deng Xiaoping 105, 109, 127n3
and leadership 104, 107, 110–11
development, and rights 81, 98, 149
dialogue 56, 71, 82–6, 195
and China 114, 115–16
and East Timor 160
explained 82, 83, 84
Indigenous Australian disadvantage 163, 193, 194, 195, 196
limitations of 71, 85
Linklater, Andrew 67, 69, 70–1, 74, 82
and listening 84, 85
‘message’ approach 82, 202
need for on-going 90–1, 211
and rights 82, 85–6, 90
Tiananmen Square massacre 93, 109, 110, 114, 115–16, 121
and understanding 84–5
difference 59–60, 65, 67, 70, 100, 175
assumptions of Western superiority 65–6
denial of Indigenous Australian 190–1, 194
engaging with 13–14, 74
exclusion based on 29–30, 31, 32
oppositions 11–15, 20, 57, 79, 80
and rights 11–12
as site of abuse 14
differentiation 6, 58, 59
diversity see difference
Dodson, Mick 188–9, 190, 192–3, 194
‘domestic’ human rights 10–11
domestic violence 29, 35
Donnelly, John 5, 6
East Timor 80–1, 128, 130, 131, 135–6, 150, 151–2, 160–1
and abuse 129, 130, 143–4, 145, 148, 149, 150
following vote 153–4, 158, 159
Apodeti 133, 136, 139, 140
and Australia 134, 136, 142, 152
Catholic Church, influence 133, 134, 145, 148, 156
and Catholicism 131, 134
as rejection of Indonesian identity 131, 148
colonisation 130–3
abuse during Portuguese rule 131, 133
coup 139–40
decolonisation 130, 132, 133
right to 161
UN support 129–30
differences from and similarities with Indonesi 130–1
economic development 81, 144, 146, 149
cost to Indonesia 145, 148, 150–1
and Indonesian military 145–6, 152–3
legacy 145–6, 149–50
under Portuguese 131, 133, 136
Fretilin 134, 140, 156
emergence of 133, 134
Marxist elements 134, 136–7
supported by Portuguese 134, 135
and UDT 135, 138, 139–40
history 128, 129, 130–43
human rights situation 143–50
IMF 156, 157
integration 139, 140–1, 142, 143
economic impacts 144
Indonesian belief in desire for 147, 150–1, 153
influence of internal Indonesian politics 137–8
other models 157–8
reversed 128
international fears of communism 134, 136, 137–8
invasion 140, 141, 146
impact on Timorese 144–5, 148, 149, 150, 158–9
international acquiescence 129–30, 140, 161
international responses 136, 140, 142–3
scope 143–4
peace building 91, 155, 159–60
threats to 156–7, 159
and Portugal 130, 131, 133, 134–5
response to coup 139–40
resistance 133–40, 143–4
divisions within135, 148–9, 157–8
Xanana Gusmao 146, 152, 158–9
Santa Cruz massacre 129, 146–8
Indonesian defence of 147, 148
Indonesian investigation 147–8
responses 147, 148
Second World War 132
self-determination 133, 142, 152
ambiguity of term 160
economic factors 135, 136
emergence of political parties 133–4
Indonesian interpretation 138–9
international assistance 155, 156
international rhetoric 139, 140–2
lack of confidence in 135, 136
as rhetoric of Portuguese governments 133, 134–5
terror campaign 153
and UN 128–30, 153
violence following vote 153–4
state 155–6
conflict management 155–6, 158, 159
construction of 130, 135, 155, 157, 160
nation building 91, 128
and participation 141, 143, 156, 157, 158, 208
reconciliation 159–60, 208, 209
transition 157
fear of cost 133, 136, 139, 152
strategic concerns 136–7
UDT (Uniao Democratica de Timor) 133–4, 135, 138, 139–40
UNTAET 128–9, 154–5, 160
as de facto government 128, 155, 157, 158
US foreign policy 129, 136–7, 140
economic development 81, 104, 112, 136, 172, 196n3
see also East Timor, economic development
economic liberalisation 105, 106, 210
in China 104, 106, 112, 114, 115
and peace building 156–7
economic rights 29, 32, 34, 47, 81, 164, 199, 210
civil prioritised 34, 76, 80, 81, 108–9
overshadowed 76
empathy, as basis for morality 62–3, 65, 66, 67
Enlightenment, the 24, 26–7
ethics 23, 40, 51, 83
and human rights 16, 17, 18n1
and power 41–2
religious traditions 74–5
universalism–relativism debate 55–6
‘ethnic cleansing’ 59
ethnocentrism 42, 47, 59, 65–7, 75, 77–8, 126–7
EU (European Union) 68–9, 130
European Union see EU
everyman see universal man
exclusion 14, 21, 29, 67, 73
based on difference 29–30, 31, 32
and human rights 10–11
family 28–9, 30
first-generation rights 32–3, 34
foreign policy 41–2, 129, 136–7, 140
Foucault, Michel 41, 57
Fretilin see East Timor, Fretilin
Gadjah Mada Research Centre report 146, 150
gender 28–9, 30, 31
globalisation 47, 167
global norms see international norms Goa 140, 143
Gomes, Costa 133, 135
Gongzilian (Beijing Workers’ Autonomous Union) 120
Gusmao, Xanana146, 152, 158–9
Habermas, Jurgen 67, 71
harm see suffering
health see Indigenous Australian health
Hobbes, Thomas 25, 26, 35, 37, 98
Holland see Indonesia
homogeneity 11–12
see also difference
House of Representatives Standing Committees on Aboriginal Affairs (Australia) see HRSCAA
HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission)172, 191–2
HRSCAA (House of Representatives Standing Committees on Aboriginal Affairs) 184, 185
humanness, notions of15, 18, 21, 22
Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission (Australia) see HREOC
Human Rights Commission (Australia) 165
hunger strikes 109, 115, 116, 120
Hu Yaobang 104–5, 107
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights) 97
idealism 50, 51–2
definitions of 52
and realism 20, 37, 50–3, 125, 160–1
ILO (International Labour Organisation) 97
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 155, 156–7
Immigration Restriction Act (Australia) 180
inclusiveness 31–2, 67, 69
Indigenous Australian disadvantage 91, 162, 163, 201
assimilation policy 174, 181, 182, 190–1, 193
assumptions regarding 165, 174, 181, 184
culturally based165, 167, 171, 180
social Darwinism 179–80
causes of 162–3, 171, 181
‘Aboriginal problem’ 176, 185–6
settler attitudes 167, 172, 178, 179, 182
see also under Indigenous Australian health
child removal 167, 179, 182
Bringing Them Home Report 165
church missions 171–2, 181
colonialism 186–7
deaths in custody 165, 166
denial of difference 190–1, 194
dependence171–2, 181, 188–9, 191
dialogue, need for 163, 193, 194, 195, 196
dispossession 171, 172–3, 175, 178–9, 180, 181, 191
economic control 171–2, 178–9, 181, 188
education 170
efforts to redress 162, 165, 171, 181–2, 191–2
see also Indigenous Australian health, policy
equity issues 174, 190, 194
extent of 166, 167, 168–77, 186
housing 170–1, 181, 185
impacts of abuse 171–2, 173–4
incarceration 166, 181
infrastructure, lack of 170–1, 172
institutionalisation 181–2, 188
international response 164–5, 167, 182
land, loss of see Indigenous Australians, land rights
marginalisation 164, 174, 175, 177–82, 181, 183, 194
national concern 163, 165–6, 167
poverty 162, 170–1, 181, 184
public services 170–1
representations of Indigenous people 179–80, 181
responsibility for 166, 178–9
unemployment 170
violence 162, 163, 169–70
welfare 172–3, 174, 175, 196n3
welfarism 173, 175, 196n1
White Australia policy 180
Indigenous Australian health 91, 162, 166, 187, 192, 193, 208
causes of death 162, 164, 169, 184
infant mortality 162, 168, 181, 186
social conditions 169, 170
substance abuse 162, 169–70
suicide 162
violence 162, 169–70
causes of ill-health 181, 187
lack of infrastructure 170–1, 183, 184–5
malnutrition 169, 170, 181, 185
poverty 162, 170–1, 181, 184
and citizenship 174, 208
comparison with settler health 168–9
criticism by international bodies 163–4, 182
government response to 165
cultural awareness 176, 183, 184, 185, 186–7, 188, 196–7n4
cultural beliefs 187
current conditions 167, 168–77
statistics 168, 169, 171, 186
environmental health 162, 170, 184
government response see under policy below
and human rights 164, 166, 174, 194, 204
international criticism 163–5, 182
lack of improvement 169, 186
life expectancy 168
mental illness 170
national attention 168, 176
participation 163, 183–4, 188
consultation 177, 186, 196–7n4
and mutuality 192, 193
policy 162, 165, 182–8, 191, 201
Aboriginal Medical Services 183, 187–8, 195
consultation 188
control of Indigenous lives 163, 182, 183
funding 176–7, 183, 184, 185, 189
impact of 183, 184, 185–6, 187
infrastructure a state responsibility 184–5
lack of accountability 184–5, 186, 189
lack of cooperation 183, 184–5, 186, 187–8
liaison officers 181–2
national Aboriginal health organisation 187–8
National Aboriginal Health Strategy 185
national database 184
national plans 183–4
1967 referendum 182–3
self-management 175, 184, 188, 197n8
substance abuse 162, 166, 169–70
Indigenous Australians 167, 173–5, 179
activism 174, 182–3, 192
apology by government 165, 195
citizenship 173–4, 190, 191–2, 193, 196
assimilation 190, 191
attainment of 167, 180, 182–3
and health 174, 208
1967 Referendum 167, 182–3
community 192
importance of 170, 187, 208
history, need for acknowledgement 194–5
land rights 162, 165, 178–9, 190, 192, 194, 210–11
and health 162, 182, 192
native title 178, 192, 193
terra nullius 177, 180, 191, 195–6
Wik decision 166, 178
see also Mabo decision
multiculturalism, rhetoric of 174
participation in political life 91, 164, 172, 175, 195, 207
barriers to 188, 191–2, 193
reconciliation 165, 174, 193, 208
rights 91, 163, 188, 192, 193, 194
citizenship 173, 174
and health 164, 166, 174, 204
welfare 172–3, 175, 177, 196n3
self-determination 174, 175–6, 188–9, 191, 192–4
economic 196n3
Tent Embassy 175
self-government 175–6
treaty 175, 195
indigenous peoples 7, 31, 167
individualism 6, 27, 61, 99, 211
and human rights 199, 200, 201
see also universalism–relativism debate
Indonesia 79, 137–8, 139, 151–2, 154
anti-communism 137–8
belief in ‘saving’ East Timor 145, 147, 152
colonisation 129–30, 132
coup of 1965 137
criticism of military 147–8, 151
desire for consolidation 132, 136, 137, 138
differences from and similarities with East Timor 130–1
fear of fragility of state 132, 137, 138, 151
human rights situation 79–80
independence movement 132, 137
international relations 139, 142–3
response to condemnation 143, 149
leadership struggles138–9, 151–2
security as priority 144–5, 151
sense of nationhood 132, 138
Suharto 79, 81, 137, 139, 151–2
see also East Timor
Indonesian Commission of Investigation report 154
injury see suffering
interdependency theory 48–9
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 97
international diplomacy 48, 49
International Labour Organisation (ILO) 97
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 155, 156–7
international norms 43–5, 46, 47, 49, 63, 167, 202–3
international relations 19, 20, 35–6, 37–54
and contractarianism 35
homogeneity and difference 11, 12
and human rights 3, 10–12, 43
and power 39–40
and realism 37, 38
Irian Jaya 140
Kantian perspectives 51, 67
see also Linklater, Andrew
labour organisations 94
land rights see Indigenous Australians, land rights
learning45–6, 48–9, 84
liberal democracy 13, 69
construction of citizenship 188, 191
and East Timor 129, 155
and human rights5, 6, 8, 12, 19, 83
liberalism 43, 44–6, 47, 49, 56, 200
‘Asian Way’ debate 76
construction of rights 203–4
and human rights 43, 49, 200
and realism 43, 44, 50
state-centred nature of 46–7
and universality 46, 61
and utilitarianism 43, 44, 49
liberty, definition of 33
Linklater, Andrew 67–74
critique of state 73–4
emphasis on dialogue 67, 69, 70–1, 74, 82
and universalism 69–70, 71
Li Peng 116
listening 7, 16–17, 21, 84, 85
Liu Xiaobo 116, 120, 127
Locke, John 25, 31, 35, 179
contractarianism 20, 22–3, 35, 37, 178
derivation of rights 5, 6, 17, 28–9
see also social contract
Lockean framework and abuse of rights 111–12, 121–3
Mabo decision 165, 166, 167, 177–9, 180, 190, 194
implications of 177–8
international law 196, 197n9
native title 178, 192, 193
and terra nullius 177, 180, 191, 195–6
see also Indigenous Australians, land rights
Malik, Adam 138, 140
‘man’ see universal man
market economy see economic liberalisation
Marsinah 79, 80
Marxism 31, 51, 67, 112, 206
and Chinese reform 104–5
influence on Fretilin 134, 136–7
and rights 50, 99
middle classes 26, 31
migration 63–4, 68–9
modernisation 35, 78, 96
see also China, modernisation
modern state 36
emergence of 6, 8, 18, 27
see also Westphalian system
Mohamad, Goenawan 79–80
moral obligation see Rorty, Richard
moral superiority, assumptions of 62, 65–7
Murtopo, General 135
NACCHO (National Aboriginal Community Centre Health Organisation) 187–8, 195
Nandy, Ashis 75, 76, 79, 82
National Aboriginal Community Centre Health Organisation see NACCHO
natural law 22–3, 24, 53n1
negative rights 32–3, 34
neorealism 37–8
NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 45, 153
non-interference, principle of see Westphalian system
origins of rights 19, 22–3, 25–6, 28–9, 43, 49
pain see suffering Parekh, Bhikhu 62, 74
Parliamentary Sub-Committee on Human Rights (Australia) 170
Pearson, Noel 166, 190
People’s Liberation Army see China, People’s Liberation Army
Politburo Standing Committee (China) 110
political rights 34, 96, 199
Portugal see East Timor
positive rights 33, 164
postmodernism 72
poverty 81, 158
cause of ill-health 162, 170–1, 181, 184
Indigenous Australian disadvantage 162, 170–1, 181, 184
power 29, 45, 54n5
and ethics 41–2
international relations 39–40
and realism 39–41, 42
rise of secular 6, 24–5, 28
and social contract 29–30
‘soft’ 45–6
practice of human rights 4–5, 6–7, 47, 204, 205, 209, 210
and ‘community’206–7, 209
confrontation in 208–9
countering abuse 79–80, 90, 205–6
inclusivity 207–8
use of threats 202, 208
pragmatism 65, 96
promotion of rights 4, 90–1, 198, 199, 200, 202
as agent of change 12, 13
international 43, 55–6, 76, 198
language of 19–20, 199
and modern state 8, 10, 198–9, 202–3
progress in 35, 46
relationship between state and individual 199, 202–3
shaping debate 199–200
see also ‘Asian Way’ debate
Racial Discrimination Act (Australia) 167, 191–2
radical fragmentation, principle of 61
Ramos-Horta, Jose 134, 138
rationality, rejection of 62, 64, 65
RCIADIC (Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody) 165, 175–6, 182, 186
realism 37–8, 39, 41, 42–5, 54n6
conflicts within 41–2
definitions 38–9
and ethics 40, 41–2
‘hard’ 37, 38, 39
and idealism50–1, 52–3
and liberalism 43, 44, 50
origins of 37, 38, 39
and power 39–41, 42
rebuilding community 21–2, 91, 128, 155, 159–60
relativism 20, 52, 55, 57, 62, 206
and Brown 63–4
equated with ‘East’ 79, 80, 81
and Rorty 66–7
see also universalism–relativism debate
religious traditions 39, 53n1, 74, 75
Christendom 24–5, 58
church missions 172, 181
origins of human rights 6, 24, 25, 27
and violence 75, 87n2, 148, 151
see also Catholic Church
rights 41, 47, 78, 86, 87, 98, 164, 200
civil 32, 96, 107
prioritised over economic 34, 76, 80, 81, 108–9
complexity 122, 198, 203
concepts 3, 4–6, 8, 9–10, 13, 35
construction 47, 55, 200–1, 203–4
critiques of 34, 42, 50, 55
definition of 86–7
derivation of 5, 6–7, 28, 199
Lockean social contract 17, 28–9, 32
to development 81
and dialogue 85–6
economic 29, 32, 34, 47, 81, 164, 199, 210
first-generation negative rights 32–3, 34
political 32, 34, 96, 199
second-generation positive rights 33, 164
universality 36, 61
rights promotion 87, 123
‘message’ approach 47, 82
Rorty, Richard 56, 62, 68
assumptions of moral superiority 65–7
empathy 62–3, 65, 66, 67
rationality 62, 64, 65, 72
transcultural morality 64, 65, 71
universalism–relativism debate 62–7
Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (Australia) see RCIADIC
sanctions 96–7
second-generation rights 33, 164
secular state, rise of 6, 24–5, 28
self, construction of 47–8
self-determination 98
see also East Timor, self-determination
self-interest 45, 61, 65
self-reflection 47, 82
slavery 30
social and cultural rights 199
see also Indigenous Australian health
social contract 5, 25, 37
description of state 33–4
exclusivity of 31–2
explained 26–7
origins 24
theories 24–36
see also Hobbes, Thomas; Locke, John
social duties versus rights 25
socialism 99
see also communism; Marxism
sovereignty 83, 98, 99
Soviet bloc 99, 100
Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (China) 109–10
Stanner, W. E. H. 167, 177–82
state 59, 69, 73, 93, 103, 108–9, 174, 201–2
as cause of abuse 34, 86, 121, 126, 149, 162–3, 201, 202–3
central to liberalism 46–7
as community 63–4, 80, 88n5, 208
critique of 73–4
cultural influences 76, 78
development of 55, 58–9
modern 6, 8, 18, 27, 36, 60–1, 198–9
secular 6, 24–5, 28
impact of human rights 11, 76, 106, 198–9, 200–1
liberal-democratic, and human rights 5, 6, 8, 12, 19, 83
relationship with individual 102, 199, 202–3
China democracy movement 93, 94–5, 101, 102, 125–6
and social contract 33–4
sovereignty 54n5, 68–9, 98, 202
universality 55, 59, 202
Westphalian system 8, 11
see also China state, role of; East Timor
subsistence 108, 210
as right 32, 98
suffering 8–9, 10, 47, 75, 85, 162
defined 4, 5
recognition of 9, 23, 199
relationship to abuse 204–5
responses to 49, 57, 67, 83, 85, 205
roots of 48
see also abuse
Suharto 79, 81, 137, 139, 151–2
terra nullius see Mabo decision
Tiananmen Papers, The 93–4
Tiananmen Square massacre 9, 93–127
aftermath 94, 95, 97, 101, 121, 123–4
causes 121, 123, 124
citizens rights above ‘human’ rights 91, 93, 98–9, 101, 124–5
individualism 99
inevitability of 102, 110
international relations 96, 97–8
leadership, state 94, 95, 108–9, 110, 120–1, 122–3
and dialogue 93, 110, 121
Liu Xiaobo 116, 120, 127
oversimplification of 121–3, 126
pragmatism–realism debate 96, 97
representations 95, 99
in China 99, 101
as ‘man’ versus ‘state’ 94–5, 101, 102
in West 99, 100, 101, 102
responses 95, 96, 102, 121–7
demonisation of Chinese regime 99–100, 101, 122
impact of Lockean model 91, 93, 95, 101
sanctions 96–7
Western mythologising 95, 101, 111, 121–2, 125–6
rights debate within China 96, 122, 123–4
supremacy of citizen’s rights 98–9, 101
significance
in China 93, 95
in West 93, 94–5, 96, 99, 101
state, concept of 93, 201
students 95, 122
as martyrs 99, 100, 101
support for 109–10
workers 111
Zhang Liang 93–4
see also Beijing Spring; China
Tibet 95
Torres Strait Islander people see Indigenous Australians
torture 14–15
see also abuse; suffering
trade sanctions 96–7
truth 16, 42, 71–2, 75, 83, 201–2
and idealism 50, 51, 52
and ‘message’ approach to rights promotion 47, 82, 90–1
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 15
UDT (Uniao Democratica de Timor) 133–4, 135, 138, 139–40
UN (United Nations) 20, 24, 44–5, 46, 156
and East Timor 129–30, 132, 153
see also UNTAET
UN Committee Against Torture 165
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 165
UN Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 164
UNHRC 97, 165
UN Human Rights Commission see UNHRC uniformity 58–9
United Nations see UN United States 97, 164
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 24, 46, 57, 167
Universal Human Rights Covenant 46
universalism 56–7, 59, 62, 70, 74, 199
alternative 75–6
critiques of 56, 57
defined 83
equated with ‘West’ 79, 80, 81
and human rights 200–1
limit of concept 55, 57
see also Brown, Chris; Linklater, Andrew; Rorty, Richard
universalism–relativism debate 20, 57, 60–2, 67, 74, 83, 202
deficiencies of 60–1, 67, 74
development of modern state 60–1
and ethics 55–6
and rights 60–1, 67, 200
and sovereignty 58, 83
see also ‘Asian Way’ debate; Brown, Chris; Linklater, Andrew; Rorty, Richard
universalist–utilitarian approach 200–2
universality 6, 8, 21, 30–1, 32, 47–8, 52
defined 8, 68
and idealism 50
of realism 39
reconceptualised 67–8
and rights 8, 9, 12, 33, 36, 46, 61, 86–7, 199, 200–1
see also Linklater, Andrew
universal man 27–8, 30, 31, 58
construction of 188, 191
and Enlightenment 24–5
versus the state 94–5, 101
UNTAET 128–9, 154–5, 160
as de facto government 128, 155, 157, 158
UN Transitional Authority for East Timor see UNTAET
utilitarianism 23–4, 49, 200
utopianism see idealism
Vienna Conference on Human Rights 77, 98
violence see abuse; suffering
welfare rights see second-generation rights
Western concepts of rights 34–5, 47, 59, 79, 126–7
Westphalia, Peace of 24
Westphalian system 16, 24, 43–4, 67, 69
concept of the state 8, 11
definition 18n2, 24
universalism 58, 201–2
Whitlam, Gough 136, 142
Wik decision 166, 178
see also Indigenous Australians, land rights; Mabo decision
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 8, 72, 73
women 7, 30, 34
workers 7, 79–80, 180, 210
and democracy movement 110, 111, 114, 115, 119, 120, 127n4
World Bank 96, 155, 156–7
World Council of Churches 164
Wu’erkaixi 115–16, 117
Yang Shangkun 109
Zhang Liang 93–4
Zhao Ziyang 104–5, 107, 109

Human rights and the borders of suffering

The promotion of human rights in international politics

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