Economic democracy instead of more capitalism
Core historical concepts reconsidered
in In search of social democracy

This chapter evaluates some of the more important projects of economic and industrial democratisation in the past. It focuses on projects in highly developed capitalist states with a democratic constitution. Space does not allow an analysis of reform-minded forces in the nations formerly dominated by communist parties or initiatives in the developing world. The chapter also focuses on three developments that were most influential in the capitalist West. They are: guild socialism in Britain and the combination of the council movement and socialisation in Germany and Austria after the First World War; the international socialist discussion on 'plannism'; and attempts to strengthen 'co-determination' in West Germany and to introduce wage earners' funds by the Swedish trade unions. The power of the trade unions was strengthened after the Second World War in many countries.

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In search of social democracy

Responses to crisis and modernisation

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