Index
in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

Index

Abdulhamid II, Sultan 478, 102
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Bulgarian case 1578, 160
Abdulmecid, Sultan 478
Lebanon/Syria massacres 13840, 1423
Abiew, Francis Kofi 162
Abraham, A. J. 138
abuse problem (in humanitarian intervention) 2, 5, 18, 22, 58, 63, 66, 68, 702, 124, 148, 21415, 2256
Adams, John Quincy 110, 199, 228
admission into family of nations and international law (recognition, entry) 345, 40, 423, 46
China 378, 40
Japan 37, 423
Ottoman Empire 356, 43, 467
Adrianople, Treaty of (September 1829) 121
Aguinaldo, Emilio 209, 211
Ahmed Pasha 1378, 140, 145n.34
Akarli, Engin Deniz 138
Aksakov, Ivan Sergeyevich 44, 173, 177, 1801, 184, 186, 194n.81
Alexander I, Tsar 105
acute dilemma for Russia 108
against Greek struggle for independence 1079, 111
support for Greeks 108, 114
Alexander II, Tsar 171, 176, 182, 186, 188, 179, 192n.35, 193n.42, 228
Balkan crisis (1875–78) 149, 170, 173, 1757
Bulgarians 1747
Pan-Slavism (against) 173, 1756, 179
Russo-Ottoman War (1878–79)
noble motives 1758, 179
noble motives questioned 1879
Serb-Ottoman War (1876) 1735
Alexander III, Tsar 173, 175, 179
Alexandrowicz, Charles 31
Ali Pasha, Mehmed Emin, Grand Vizier 47, 139, 141
Ali Pasha, of Yannina, 107, 112
altruism 1, 101, 177, 178, 226
American Indians 15, 20, 21, 24n.12, 32, 200, 206
Amos, Sheldon 60 (table 4.1), 66
anarchy 5, 12, 20, 68, 823, 116, 209
Ancillon, Friedrich 44, 126n.29
Andrassy, Gyula
Balkan crisis (1875–78) 149, 151, 156, 161, 172, 174, 178
Andrassy Note 149, 172
Anghie, Antony 2
Annan, Kofi, UN Secretary-General 34
April Uprising (Bulgarian) (April–May 1876) 1501
Aquinas, Thomas 15
Argyle, Duke of see Campbell, George
Ariga Nagao 42
Aristotle 14, 24n.12, 27n.49
Arntz, Egide R.N. 59, 60 (table 4.1), 65, 678, 148
atrocity(ies), barbarity(ies), crimes, extermination, horror(s), massacre(s), slaughter 35, 12, 19, 38, 58, 63, 657, 71, 82, 87, 101, 124, 1612, 214, 2267
against Christians by Muslims or
Ottomans 44, 467, 124
Druzes or Muslims against Maronites and other Christians 13740, 142
Ottomans against Bulgarians 45, 148, 1505, 157, 172, 1745, 1835, 189
Ottomans (or Muslims) against Greeks 10810, 114, 121, 123
against Muslims/Ottomans by Christians 47, 102, 124, 190, 226
Bulgarians against Ottomans 1502
Greeks against Muslims/Ottomans 107, 10910
Maronites against Druzes 137
Spaniards against American Indians 15, 202
Augustine, Saint 15
Austin, John 57, 87
Austria 44, 90, 105, 1078, 112, 11718, 1201, 137, 141
Austria-Hungary 71, 105, 135, 1489, 151, 158, 161, 170, 179, 180, 2056
Avineri, Shlomo 85
‘Awn, Bishop 1378
Balkan crisis (1875–78) 45, 47, 14851, 1714
barbarians or barbarous (Asian and African peoples, states, countries, nations) 17, 20, 312, 346, 38, 58, 66, 723, 889, 189
barbarians (non-Chinese peoples) 3941
Western barbarians 402
barbarization rumour (Greek case) 11314, 122
Baring, Walter 1501
Barker, Ernest 27n.48
Barrington-Kennett, Vincent 156
Bass, Gary J., ix, x, 143, 162, 214, 226
Bazyler, Michael J. 162
Beautfort d’Hautpoul, General 140
Behuniak, Thomas E. 162
Beisner, Robert 21011
belligerency (belligerents)106, 112
Bemis, Samuel Flagg 200, 202, 213
Bentham, Jeremy 33, 110, 228
Benton, Elbert 213
Berlin, Congress of (June–July 1878) 1613, 179
Berlin, Treaty of (July 1878) 1613, 179
Berlin Memorandum (May 1876) 149, 152, 172
Bernard, Mountague 60 (table 4.1), 64, 88, 135
Berner, Albrecht Friedrich 60 (table 4.1), 63
Beza, Theodore 19
Bismarck, Otto von 35, 149, 156, 161, 190, 228
Blaine, James 199, 201
Blake, Robert 155
Blanco, Rámon, General 2045
Blanquière, Edward 117, 128n.76
Bluntschli, Johann Caspar 35, 41, 42, 52n.58, 57, 60 (table 4.1), 656, 723, 76n.59,80n.160, 142, 148, 162
Bodin, Jean 1718, 1920, 21, 27n.61
Bonfils, Henri 345, 38, 601 (table 4.1), 66, 72, 148
Borchard, Edwin M. 612 (table 4.1), 68
Botev, Christo 150, 172
Brierly, James Leslie 62 (table 4.1), 70
Bright, John 33, 85, 155
Britain, British 33, 35, 3841, 446, 48, 57, 71, 86, 105, 10718, 120, 121, 123, 1357, 13942, 14963, 170, 1756, 183, 185, 206, 2256
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Bulgarian atrocities 14963
conflict with Russia 1523, 156, 15961
humanitarian aid to the Balkans and the Caucasus (1876–78) 156
intelligentsia and Bulgarian atrocities and Russia 155
public and press on Bulgarian atrocities and Russia 1535, 159
support of Ottoman Empire 149, 1513, 15563
Greek War of Independence, 10718, 121, 123
barbarization rumour 11314
British intellectuals and Greek War of Independence 110
humanitarian concern 1089, 11314, 116
Lebanon and Syria massacres 13942
territorial integrity of Ottoman Empire 44, 152, 158
Brownlie, Ian 123, 142, 214
Bryan, William Jennings 21011
Bulgaria 175, 1789, 1823
Bulgarian atrocities 1507, 162, 172, 1757, 1826
see also Britain; Russia
Bulgarian case (1870s) 172, 175, 1779, 1825, 188, 190, 2267
Bulgarian autonomy 157, 160, 175
Bulgarian independence 178, 182
see also Britain; Russia
Bulgarian Revival 150
Burgess, John 201
Burke, Edmund 234, 33, 44, 83
Byron, Lord 110, 228
Greek War of Independence 110, 11214, 128n.76
Calhoun, William 204
Calvo, Carlos (Charles) 11, 57, 601 (table 4.1),122
Campbell, George (Duke of Argyle) 1534
Canning, George 105, 135, 228
Greek War of Independence 11117, 119220
ambivalence toward Greeks 111
barbarization rumour 11314
gradual support for Greeks 11117, 11920
London Treaty 11617
St Petersburg Protocol 114
see also Britain
Cánovas, Antonio 1989, 2034
Capodistrias, Ioannis
and Greek War of Independence 44, 1056, 10811, 117, 11921, 191n.4
Carlyle, Thomas 153, 155, 183
Carnazza Amari, Giuseppe 38, 601 (table 4.1), 66, 87, 148
Carnegie, Andrew 200, 210, 213
Castlereagh, Viscount 44, 105, 107, 1089, 111, 124n.3, 135, 228
Greek War of Independence 1079
Cavaglieri, Arrigo 612 (table 4.1), 68, 70, 87
Cavallar, Georg 84
Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de 198
Charles V, King and Holy Roman Emperor 21, 24n.12
Chateaubriand, François-René 44, 110, 115, 134, 228
Cherniaev, Victor 151, 173, 182
China 4, 33, 3741, 73
reaction to contact with the West 3941
Chomsky, Noam 2
Christian society of states (nations) 31, 358, 44, 59, 63, 72, 121, 136
Christianity 14, 18, 32, 346, 38, 42, 110, 185, 188
Christians 14, 1820, 346, 447, 656, 69, 713, 87, 1078, 115, 1212, 124, 13641, 143, 163
Balkan (in Ottoman Empire) 1523, 1578, 162, 1717, 18990
Catholic(s) 14, 154
Christian Arabs 1367
Orthodox 106, 108, 155, 170, 181
Cicero 14, 17
civil war(s) 12, 59, 63, 657, 70, 84, 8991, 105, 135, 226
civilization (European civilization) 313, 3640, 43, 47, 110, 115, 1223, 13940, 16970, 181, 185, 2078, 226
Christian 312, 356, 157
European (and Christian) 346, 44, 124
non-European
Chinese 389, 412
civilized (states, nations, peoples) 318, 42, 89, 109, 177, 189, 227
civilized–barbarians (uncivilized, non-civilized) dichotomy 312, 66, 713, 89, 124, 189, 2267
civilized–barbarians (uncivilized, non-civilized)–savages distinction 32, 35, 227
civilized states’ intervention in non-civilized states 656, 713
civilizing mission 31, 34, 38, 46, 89, 181, 190, 201, 20810, 227
Clayton, Gerald David 154
Cleveland, Grover, President 2034, 210, 213
Cobden, Richard 33, 44, 45, 81, 857, 89, 134, 135
British Empire 33
non-intervention 81, 857, 89, 1345
Ottoman Empire 445
Cochrane, Lord 115, 117
Codrington, Admiral Edward 115, 11819
colonialism 17, 22, 33, 83, 85, 89, 210
Committee of Union and Progress see Young Turks
communitarianism/communitarians 2, 81, 87, 91n.4
Concert of Europe, 5, 46, 48, 162
see also Congress system
Condorcet, Nicholas de 33, 134
Congress system 105, 106, 108
Constant, Benjamin 33, 110
Constantinople, Conference of (December 1876–January 1877) 1578, 162, 175, 176
cosmopolitanism/cosmopolitans 2, 81, 83, 867, 91n.3, 91n.6, 172
counter-intervention 64, 71, 867, 90, 134
Crawley, Charles William 117
Creasy, Edward Shepherd 60 (table 4.1), 66
Crimean War (1853–56) 43, 58, 137, 171, 17880
crimes see atrocity(ies)
crimes against humanity 4, 5
Cuba 197215
struggle for independence 198, 201, 203, 2067, 21112
against Cuban independence (US) 199, 203, 2045, 207, 210, 21213
see also Spain; US
Cubans 198, 2001, 2038, 21011, 213, 226
Danilevskiy, Nikolay Yakovlevich 1801
Darwin, Charles 50n.21, 155, 201
Davis, Cushman Kellogg 201, 208
Day, William R. 197, 208, 212
de Rigny, Admiral Henri, 115, 118
Decembrists 111, 114, 181
Delacroix, Eugène 10910, 114
Derby, Lord 44, 149, 152, 15661, 174
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Bulgarian atrocities 149, 152, 15661, 174
Despagnet, Frantz 61 (table 4.1), 68, 72, 137
Dewey, Commodore George 202, 207
Dickinson, Edwin DeWitt 62 (table 4.1), 72
Diderot, Denis 31, 33
Dilke, Charles 32, 159
disinterestedness clause (or self-denying clause) 58, 63, 69, 712, 101, 114, 122, 124, 140, 1423, 207, 225
Disraeli, Benjamin 44, 149, 1516, 15861, 167n.106, 174, 176, 192n.35, 228
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Bulgarian atrocities, 149, 1516, 15861
Gladstone 1545, 159
Realpolitik 155
Russia 1523, 156, 15961, 174, 176
territorial integrity of Ottoman Empire 44, 152, 158
Dostoevsky, Fyodor 44, 183, 1878, 190, 228
Douzinas, Costas 2
Drahomanov, Mikhail Petrovich 1801, 1889
Druzes 1358, 141, 143, 145n.34
Dudley, Lord 116, 118
Dulles, Foster Rhea 208
Duplessis-Mornay, see Mornay
Dupuy de Lôme, Enrique 203, 205
Eastern Question, the 44, 69, 121, 149, 171, 175, 180, 1812
‘effusion of blood’, shedding of blood, bloodshed 58, 63, 71, 101, 116, 118, 1223, 140, 174, 187, 207, 214, 2256
Elliot, Henry 45, 1512, 1578, 165n.27
Ellis, Anthony 89
Engelhardt, Édouard Philippe 45, 601 (table 4.1), 67, 72
Esmein, Adhémar 18
Estrada Palma, Tomás 2034, 211
ethnic cleansing 35, 190
Eurocentrism 312, 227
extermination see atrocity(ies)
family of nations (international society) 323, 367, 39, 40, 423
Farah, Caesar E., 138
Farley, James Lewis 156
Fauchille, Paul 62 (table 4.1), 69, 71
Fenwick, Charles G., 62 (table 4.1), 6970, 162, 1978, 214
Ferguson, Adam 31
Field, David Dudley 38
Finnemore, Martha ix, 133n.179, 162
Fiore, Pasquale 36, 51.n.68 and n.69, 60 (table 4.1), 647, 73n.9, 87, 148
Fiske, John 201
Floeckher, Adolphe de 61 (table 4.1), 68, 72
Foner, Philip 202
Fonteyne, Jean-Paul L. 162, 214
France, French 2, 3, 1819, 33, 38, 401, 434, 48, 83, 105, 107, 11011, 113, 11521, 123, 1349, 1403, 149, 153, 158, 161, 1701, 2056, 2089, 2256
Greek War of Independence 105, 107, 11011, 113, 11521, 123
Battle of Navarino 118
expeditionary force against Ibrahim 11920
major figures supporting Greeks 110, 115
neutrality 107, 115
support of Greeks 11617, 11920
Lebanon and Syria massacres 13842
expeditionary force 140, 143
humanitarian concern 1389
instrumental motives 1412
public and press 1389, 142
Franck, Thomas M. 142, 214, 227
Freeman, Edward Augustus 153, 1556, 184
French Revolution (1789) 23, 823, 106, 134, 159
Froude, James Anthony 155, 1834
Frye, William P. 201, 208
Fuad Pasha, Mehmed 478, 13943
Fukuzawa Yukichi 42
Funck-Brentano, Théophile 601 (table 4.1), 66, 72
Ganji, Manouchehr 162
García, Calixto 198, 203, 21112
Gareis, Karl von 601 (table 4.1), 68
Garnett, George 19, 27n.48
Garshin, Vsevolod Mikhailovic, 188, 196n.123
genocide 2, 45, 834, 226
Gentili, Alberico 1518, 201, 29n.86, n.98, 31
just war 1516
precursor of idea of humanitarian intervention 16
war against tyranny 21
Germany 41, 71, 148, 149, 153, 158, 161, 2056, 209, 210
Gertsen, Alexander Ivanovich 1801
Giers, Nikolay Karlovich173, 179, 188
Gladstone, William 36, 456, 64, 1525, 159, 165n.51 and n.59, 1834, 228
Bulgarian atrocities 1535
Disraeli 1535, 159
morality in international politics 155
Ottoman expulsion from Bulgaria 154, 1656n.59
Russia 159, 1834
‘Turks’ 456
Glanville, Luke 17
Gobineau, Arthur de 32, 35
Godkin, Edward Lawrence 210
Gómez, Máximo 198, 2034, 21112
Gong, Gerrit W. 33
Gorchakov, Alexander Mikhailovich 139, 161, 1712, 1789, 191n.10, 192n.16, 228
Balkan crisis (1875–78) 149, 151, 153, 156, 1589, 161, 170, 1726
Britain 153, 156, 159
Pan-Slavism 153, 174, 178
Russo-Ottoman War 1756
Serb-Ottoman War 1734
Gordon, Colonel Thomas 109
Gould, Lewis L. 202
Greece 1012, 11112, 114, 11923, 140, 151, 1601, 171, 178
Greek case (1821–32) 47, 59, 69, 153, 176, 184, 2267
Greek War of Independence 59, 65, 91, 10524, 225
Greek autonomy (tributary of Ottoman Empire) 110, 114, 116, 119, 121, 123
Greek independence/independent Greek state 1067, 11113, 115, 117, 119, 1213
against Greek independence 117, 119, 121
Greeks 59, 10615, 11718, 1203, 153, 176, 184
Greeks, ancient (Greek antiquity) 1415, 17, 36, 110
Greeks as descendents of ancient Greeks 110, 116, 119, 121
Greene, General Francis Vinton 178, 209
Gregorios V, Patriarch 1078
Grewe, Wilhelm G. 17, 22, 27n.61, 58, 162
Grotius, Hugo 1518, 203, 28n.73, 29n.98, 31, 82
just war 1516
precursor of idea of humanitarian intervention 16
war against tyranny 17, 212
Guilleminot, Armand Charles 117, 119
Guizot, François 445, 134, 143n.2
Habermas, Jürgen 2
Haggenmacher, Peter 16, 29n.98
Hall, William Edward 12, 34, 412, 601 (table 4.1), 67
Halleck, Henry Wager 42, 60 (table 4.1), 64, 197
Hamilton, Captain G. W. 115, 117
Hamilton, Richard 202
Harcourt, William Vernon 601 (table 4.1), 64, 1223, 155, 159, 184
Hastings, Captain Frank Abney 115
Hay, John 2001, 208
Hearst, William Randolph 201, 217n.38
Heffter, August Wilhelm 34, 42, 60 (table 4.1), 63
Hegel, Georg 81, 845
Heiberg, Johan 60 (table 4.1), 63
Herring, George 200
Hershey, Amos S. 612 (table 4.1), 68, 197, 213
Higgins, Alexander Pearce 62 (table 4.1), 70
Hitti, Philip K. 138
Hoar, George Frisbie 210, 213
Hobbes, Thomas 1, 19
Hobson, John A. 33, 167n.102
Hodges, Henry Green 612 (table 4.1), 68
Holly Alliance 56, 8
Holyoake, George 159, 167n.101
Hornung, Joseph 38, 60 (table 4.1), 67, 71
horrors see atrocity(ies)
Hotman, François 19
Hsü, Immanuel C.Y. 40
Hugo, Victor 110, 114, 228
human rights 356, 52n.69, 58, 72, 81, 834, 186
systematic (or massive) violation of, 12, 45
Hyde, Charles Cheney 612 (table 4.1), 68
Ibrahim Pasha 11215, 11720
barbarization rumour 11314
Greek campaign 11215, 11718
onslaught against Greeks 114, 11718
Ignatiev, Nikolay Pavlovich 44, 152, 1578, 160, 1706, 1789, 191n.10, 192n.16
imperialism/imperialist(s) 1, 2, 17, 334, 423, 45, 85, 89, 208, 2267, 229
Russian 181
US 200, 202, 2089, 21012, 214, 215
anti-imperialism 208, 21011
independence 2, 11, 23, 32, 42, 47, 58, 65, 71, 88, 148, 226
independent state(s) 23, 36, 44, 65, 67, 69, 70, 86
Innocent IV, Pope 1718, 20, 22
Institut de droit international 348, 41, 43, 57
international law 2, 11, 12, 1415, 23, 328, 403, 46, 48, 5773, 689, 81, 87, 197, 213
moral conscience of mankind 57, 73n.8 and 9
international law and humanitarian intervention 5773, 225
intervention
collective intervention 5, 65, 69, 87, 123, 142, 225
illegitimacy of 667
legitimacy of 2, 4, 58, 63, 656
right to 16, 65, 162
see also non-intervention
Islam 45, 478, 135, 180
see also Muslims
Italian independence and unification 58, 86, 135, 142
Italy 38, 46, 86, 149, 153, 158, 161, 172
Izzet Molâ 120
Japan 323, 37, 39, 413, 209, 210
reaction to contact with the West 413
Jefferson, President Thomas 110, 199
Jomini, Alexander Genrikhovich 173, 176, 179, 183, 188
just cause (for war or intervention) 6, 1416, 122
unjust cause 16
just war, just war doctrine 5, 1416, 187
jus ad bellum 14
jus in bello 14, 16
Kaneko Kentaro 43
K’ang Yu-wa 41
Kant, Emmanuel 11, 31, 33, 814, 856, 91n.3 and 6, 92n.8, 92n.19
intervention in genocides implicit in Kant? 824
non-intervention 81
exception to 82
Karatheodori Pasha, Alexander 48, 161
Karavelov, Lyuben 150, 172, 182
Kebedgy, Michel 602 (table 4.1), 67, 71
Kent, James 34, 42, 60 (table 4.1), 197
Khurshid Pasha 1378, 140
Kipling, Rudyard 208
Kireeva Novikova, see Novikova
Knudsen, Tonny Brems ix, 162, 214, 2278
Komarovskiy, Leonid 601 (table 4.1), 66
Koskenniemi, Martti 57
Kosovo, NATO intervention 25, 226, 228
Kouchner, Bernard 2
Kung, Prince Yixin 401
Kuo Sung-too 40
Laberge, Pierre 834
Lafayette, Marquis de 115, 135
LaFeber, Walter 202, 217n.31
Lamartine, Alphonse de 44, 135, 136
Languet, Hubert 1819, 27n.48
Lapradelle, Albert de 612 (table 4.1), 68, 214
Las Casas, Bartolomé de 15, 201, 245n.12, 31, 199, 206
last resort
for humanitarian intervention 56
for just war 56, 14, 16, 169
Latin America 111, 198, 202, 214, 227
Lauterpacht, Hersch 7n.12, 16, 22, 62 (table 4.1), 6970
Lavalette, Charles Marquis de 138
Lawrence, Thomas Joseph 612 (table 4.1), 68, 123, 142
Layard, Austen Henry 45, 158, 166n.85
Le Fur, Louis 612 (table 4.1), 68, 214
Lebanon 47, 13443, 225
Lebanon and Syria massacres (1860) 1379
European reaction 13741
local Ottoman authorities 1378
Ottoman reaction 13941
settlement 141
Lee, Fitzhugh 204, 212
Leo XIII, Pope 206
Levski, Vasil 150, 172
Liddon, Henry 1545
Lieven, Christopher 108, 11314, 116
Lillich, Richard B. 7n.19, 214
Lin, Tse-hsu 41
Linden, Harry van der 83
Linderman, Gerald 202
Lindsay, Robert Loyd (Lord Wantage) 156
Lingelbach, William Ezra 612 (table 4.1), 68
Liszt, Franz von 61 (table 4.1), 68
Lloyd George, David 46
Lodge, Henry Cabot 199, 201, 206, 20910, 212
London ambassadors conference, London Protocol (March 1877) 158, 1756
London, Conference of (January–July 1827) 116
London, Treaty of (July 1827) 11617, 119, 122, 225
Lorimer, James 35, 44, 46, 60 (table 4.1), 67, 72
Ludwig I, King 110, 121
Maceo, Antonio 198, 203
MacGahan, Januarius 151, 172, 175, 183
Madison, President James 110
Mahan, Alfred 201
Mahmud II, Sultan 47, 1079, 112, 114, 117, 11920
Greek War of Independence
Greek insurgents and Rum 1079, 112, 117, 11920
Russia 107, 116, 120
Maison, General Nicolas 120
Mamiani, Terenzio 378, 60 (table 4.1), 634, 87
Mandelstam, André ix, 62 (table 4.1), 70, 162
Ma‘oz, Moshe 138
Maronites 1358, 1402, 227
Marriott, J. A. R. 117
Martens, Fyodor Fyodorovich 36, 41, 46, 58, 601 (table 4.1), 656, 72, 74n.18,76n.59, 148, 162, 177, 189
Martens clause 58
Martí, José 1989, 203, 211, 218n.53
Martin, W. A. P. 41
Martínez de Campos, General Arsenio 198, 203
Marx, Karl 155, 166n.71
massacres see atrocity(ies)
Mavrokordatos, Alexander 112, 117
May, Ernest 202
Mazzini, Giuseppe 32, 44, 81, 867, 90, 1345
intervention 87
nationalism, nationality principle 86
non-intervention 86
McDougal, Myres S. 7n.19, 214
McKinley, William, President 200, 202, 2049, 211, 21314, 228
Cuban question 200, 202, 2048, 213
against jingoism and war 200, 2045
humanitarian concern 200, 2078, 213
message to Congress for intervention 207
Philippine question and reasons for annexation 2089
mediation efforts 64, 91, 195, 124, 228
Balkan crisis (1875–78) 148, 225
Greek War of Independence 11217, 119, 124
Spain and Cubans 203, 215
Meron, Theodor 16, 21
Metternich, Klemens von 44, 1058, 112, 11718, 1201, 190
against Greek War of Independence 107, 112, 118
support for Ottoman Empire against Greeks 44, 117, 120
Midhat Pasha, Grand Vizier Ahmed Shefik 489, 157
Miliutin, Dmitry 173, 175, 1767
Mill, John Stuart 32, 356, 81, 8691, 91n.4,95n.97 and 103, 96n.132, 122, 1345
intervention, reasons for 8991
counter-intervention 90
humanitarian reasons 901
national liberation movements 88, 901
protracted civil wars 901
non-intervention, reasons for 889
Miller, Alexei 181
Miller, Orest 181, 184
Mirabeau, Victor 31
Molen, Gezina H. J. van der 16, 29n.98
monarchomach(s) 1720
Monroe, President James 110
Monroe Doctrine 110, 1978, 21415
Montenegro 102, 148, 151, 1567, 1601, 1725, 178
Montesquieu 312
Moody, William Vaughn 210
Moore, John Bassett 612 (table 4.1), 197, 21314
moral consciousness of humankind, shock to 15, 58, 69, 71, 228
More, Thomas 18
Moret, Segismundo 2045
Morgan, H. Wayne 202
Mornay, Philippe de 19, 27n.48
Mowat, R. B. 226
Muhammad Ali Pasha (Mehmed Ali, Mehmet Ali) 11213
Muslim(s) 345, 47, 712, 102, 1078, 111, 113, 115, 122, 124, 1368, 14950, 160, 170, 184, 190, 199, 225
infidels (non-Muslims) 445
Napoleon III, Emperor 135, 13941, 171, 228
national self-determination 2, 86, 90, 135
nationality (nation) 867, 90, 171, 177
nationality(ies), principle of 86, 90, 106, 171, 180, 181
natural law 14, 1718, 23, 312, 36, 57
positivism 312
Navarino, Battle of (October 1826) 64, 91, 11720, 122, 149, 225
reaction to 11819
Nesselrode, Karl 105, 108, 114, 191n.4
Newman, Francis 33
Nicholas I, Tsar 11416, 120, 228
non-Christian(s) (peoples, states, nations) 16, 36, 72
infidels (non-Christians) 1718, 20, 43
see also Muslims
non-civilized see barbarians or barbarous; civilized (states, nations, peoples); civilized–barbarians (uncivilized, non-civilized) dichotomy; civilized–barbarians (uncivilized, non-civilized)–savages distinction; savages; uncivilized or non-civilized
non-intervention (principle) 1112, 17, 23, 589, 636, 71, 812, 8491, 105, 1345, 197
Norton, Charles Eliot 210
Novikoff see Novikova, Olga
Novikov, Evgeny 141, 151, 174, 183
Novikova, Olga 154, 159, 183, 186
Nys, Ernest 35, 612 (table 4.1), 689, 73, 80n.163
Offner, John L. 202
Olney, Richard 203, 210
Oppenheim, Lassa F. L. 37, 61 (table 4.1), 689
Orford, Anne 2
Orientalism 35, 47, 170, 189, 227
Ortiz, Fernando 212
Ottoman Empire, Ottomans 32, 367, 39, 439, 52n.61, 55n.131, 713, 1012, 10621, 13443, 14852, 15463, 170, 1728, 1803, 18890, 2267
admission, inequality and intervention 367, 447, 723
Bulgarian uprising and Ottoman onslaught 1501
Europe’s options in dealing with Ottoman Empire 445
Greek War of Independence 1079, 110, 11320
Ottomans (‘Turks’) as the European ‘Other’ 434
reaction to European initiatives in Balkan crisis (1875–78) 149, 1578, 162
reaction to interventions 478
reaction to Lebanon/Syria massacres 13941
see also Abdulhamid II, Sultan; Abdulmecid, Sultan; Fuad Pasha, Mehmed; Mahmud II, Sultan; Pertev-Effendi; Tanzimat; territorial integrity
Palmerston, Lord 11, 86, 121, 1356, 139, 228
intervention 135
Pan-Slavism pan-Slavists, see Russian Pan-Slavism, Russian pan-Slavists
Paris, Conference of, Paris Treaty (US–Spain) (December 1898) 208, 210
Paris ambassadors conference, Paris Protocols (August 1860) 13940, 225
Paris Peace Treaty (March 1865), Congress of Paris (February–March 1856) 35, 434, 467, 139, 151, 158, 172
admission of Ottoman Empire in European family of nations 35, 434, 46
Pears, Edwin 152, 183
Pérez Jr, Louis A. 212, 217n.37
Pertev-Effendi 115, 117, 119, 120
philhellenism, philhellenes 10911, 113, 115, 128n.84
Philippines, Filipinos
Philippine independence, 21112
against Philippine independence see imperialism; US
US (1898–99) 197, 202, 20713
Phillimore, Robert 36, 60 (table 4.1), 63, 72, 76n.59, 135, 148, 154
Pillet, Antoine 612 (table 4.1), 68
Pipes, Richard 102
Pitts, Jennifer 33
Platt Amendment 211, 214
Polignac, Jules de 44, 116
political theory on non-intervention/intervention 8191
Politis, Nicolas 62 (table 4.1), 70, 78n.131
Poros ambassadors conference (1828) 120
Porte (Sublime Porte) see Ottoman Empire
Portell Villá, Herminio 212
Potter, Pitman B. 62 (table 4.1), 70
Pradier-Fodéré, Paul Louis 601 (table 4.1), 67, 69, 72
Pratt, Julius W.200, 202, 217n.31
Proctor, Redfield 205
Prussia 44, 71, 105, 107, 139, 141, 126n.29
publicists’ and other scholars’ assessment of character of interventions (humanitarian or not?)
intervention in Bulgarian atrocities 1623
intervention in Cuba against Spain 21314
intervention in Greek War of Independence 1213
intervention in Lebanon–Syria massacres 1423
Pufendorf, Samuel 23, 31
Pushkin, Alexander Sergeyevich 110, 171, 228
Pypin, Aleksander Nikolaevich 1801
race(s) 32, 44, 45, 46, 71, 178, 189
hierarchy of races 32, 50n.21
inferior race(s) 32, 36, 38
white (master) race 32, 200
Anglo-Saxon race 200, 201, 208, 212
Aryan (Germanic, Teutonic) race 32, 35, 50n.21, 201
Redslob, Robert 62 (table 4.1), 70
Reed, Thomas Brackett 206, 210
Reid, Whitelaw 201, 205, 208
Reisman, W. Michael 7n.19, 214
Renault, Louis 601 (table 4.1), 667, 69, 72, 148
responsibility to protect (R2P or RtoP) 4
Revue de droit international et de législation comparée 33, 35, 37, 43, 45, 57, 59, 66
Ribeaupierre, Count 115, 117
right intention (for war or intervention) 6, 15, 101
Rivier, Alphonse 36, 46, 61 (table 4.1), 68, 214
Rıza, Ahmed, 489
Rodley, Nigel S. 142, 214, 227
Rodogno, Davide ix, x, 55n.129, 136, 162, 165n.27
Roig de Leuchsenring, Emilio 212
Rolin-Jaequemyns, Gustave 57, 59, 601 (table 4.1), 65, 678, 723, 148
Roosevelt, Theodore 198, 2002, 209, 211, 213
Root, Elihu 197, 206, 211, 215n.4
Rossi, Pellegrino 59, 60 (table 4.1), 143n.2
Rotteck, Herman Rodecker 60 (table 4.1), 63
Rougier, Antoine 12, 17, 612 (table 4.1), 689, 73, 80n.164, 101, 1212, 137, 1423, 162, 214
Rum (Rum millet) 106, 1078, 119
Russell, Lord John 110, 139, 155
Russia 4, 38, 41, 445, 49, 90, 101, 10521, 123, 1367, 13941, 14853, 15663, 16984, 18790, 191n.10, 192n14
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Bulgarians, Serb-Ottoman War, 14853, 15663, 16984, 18790
Austro-Hungary, agreement with 151, 158
Russian volunteers in Serbia (1876) 151, 173, 183, 1858
support for Balkan Slavs in Russian press 178, 1824
support for Balkan Slavs in Russian public 16972, 174
support for Balkan Slavs in Russian society 151, 169, 1712, 180, 182, 184, 187
Greek War of Independence 101, 10521, 123
Russo-Ottoman War (1877–78)
noble motives 1758, 179
noble motives questioned 1879
Russian Muslims 170, 190
Russian Pan-Slavism, Russian pan-Slavist(s) 445, 1523, 170, 1756, 17982
Balkan crisis (1875–78), Serb-Ottoman War, Bulgarians, Russo-Ottoman War 1523, 163, 1701, 173, 1779
Russo-Ottoman War (1828–29) 1201
Russo-Ottoman War (April 1877–January 1878) 151, 156, 158, 1768, 188, 190
Britain, British public 15860
Russia, Russians 157, 1601, 1768, 1889
Russophobia 155, 157, 1701, 17980
Rwanda genocide 34, 5, 226
Sabahaddin Bey, 489
Sadiq-Effendi 109, 112
Sagasta, Práxedes Mateo 1989, 204
Salibi, K. S. 138
Salisbury, Lord 1567, 1601, 175, 206
San Stefano, Treaty of (March 1878) 1601, 163, 178, 179
savages (African or Asian peoples) 32, 35, 38, 227
Scelle, Georges 46, 56n.142, 62 (table 4.1), 69, 78n.113
Schmitt, Carl 1, 22
Schurz, Carl 204, 210
Schuyler, Eugene 151, 175, 183
Séfériadès, Stélio 62 (table 4.1), 70
self-denying clause see disinterestedness clause
Seneca 1718
Senior, Nassau William 5960 (table 4.1), 122
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de 15, 24n.12
Serb-Ottoman War (1876) 148, 151, 156, 1724
Serbia (nineteenth century–1914) 102, 121, 148, 151, 1567, 1601, 1725, 178, 182, 184, 1867
Serbian independence 151, 161, 163, 173, 182
Serbia today 3, 4, 226
Shannon, Richard 153
Shaw, Stanford J. 137
Shelley, Percy Bysshe 110
Sherman, John 210, 212
Shuvalov, Pyotr 149, 1513, 15861, 174, 176, 1789
Sidgwick, Henry 32, 155
Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) 42
admission of Japan to family of nations 42
slaughter see atrocity(ies)
slaves by nature or natural slaves 14, 15, 24n.12
Slavic solidarity 1801, 186, 187
Smith, Adam 313
Smith, Frederick Edwin 612 (table 4.1), 68
Smith, Steven 84
social Darwinism 32, 50n.21, 201
Sorel, Albert 601 (table 4.1), 66, 72
sovereign, a (the) 12, 1720, 22, 70, 84, 122, 176
sovereign right(s), power, authority 656, 82, 157
sovereignty, principle of, 2, 4, 6, 1920, 23, 312, 46, 58, 656, 68, 71, 83, 123, 148, 226
Spain
Cuban question 10910, 115, 1979, 200, 2028, 21112, 214
Spanish (people, nation) and Cuban question 15, 17, 20, 1989, 203, 2079, 211
US 197215, 2258
Spain, Renaissance 15, 20, 38
Spanish-American War (April–August 1898) 200, 207, 211
Spanish conquest of America 15, 20, 199
Spencer, Herbert 33, 89, 155, 201
St Petersburg Protocol (April 1826) 11416
standard of civilization 31, 33, 39, 424, 73, 227
Stanley, Henry 33
Stead, William Thomas 1534, 1834
Stowell, Ellery C. 12, 18, 27n.61, 62 (table 4.1), 6970, 76n.74, 137, 1423, 162, 214, 228
Strangford, Lady 156
Strangford, Viscount 1089, 112, 128n.84
Stratford Canning (Stratford de Redcliffe) 445, 11415, 11718, 120, 128n.84, 149, 154
Stroganov Grigoriy A. 108
Strong, Josiah 201, 212
Strupp, Karl 62 (table 4.1), 70
Suarez, Francisco 1516, 18, 21, 31
successful outcome of intervention, prospect of 56, 71, 88, 226
Swinburne, Algernon Charles 155
Takashaki Sakue 42
Talleyrand, Charles Maurice 1056
Tanzimat (reforms in Ottoman Empire) 45, 47, 136, 138
Taube, Michel 62 (table 4.1), 70
Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich 186
Teller Amendment 207, 215
territorial integrity (mainly of Ottoman Empire) 44, 47, 154, 158, 172
Tesón, Fernando 7n.19, 824
Thouvenel, Édouard Antoine de
Lebanon and Syria massacres 135, 1389, 141, 228
Tibawi, A. L. 138
Tocqueville, Alexis de 32
Tolstoy, Leo Nikolayevich 183, 185, 1878, 196n.123, 228
Torriente, Cosme de la 212
Trim, D. J. B. ix, x, 19
Tsurutaro Senga 43
Tuck, Richard 22, 26n.40
Turgenev, Ivan Sergeyevich 183, 185
‘Turks’ (Ottomans according to Europeans and Americans) 43, 446, 52n.61, 1089, 11011, 115, 117, 122, 1536, 159, 166n.71, 175, 1778, 183, 185, 18890, 217
Twain, Mark 210, 213, 228
Twiss, Travers 35, 46, 601 (table 4.1)
tyranny, against tyranny 12, 14, 1623
Uchimura Kanzō 42
uncivilized or non-civilized (Asian and African peoples, states, countries, nations) 31, 348, 42, 66, 712, 227
United Nations (UN) 24
Security Council 25
authorization by 25
US (United States of America) 24, 102, 110, 112, 197215
Cuba, motives for intervening 199202, 21213
humanitarian 199201
instrumental 199, 2012
Cuban question, Spain 197215, 2258
against Cuban independence (or limited independence) 203, 207, 212, 21415
anti-imperialism(sts), anti-expansionism(sts) 208, 21011
business circles, 200, 202, 2056
China market 201, 210, 217n.47
expansionism(sts) /imperialism(sts), 2002, 20813, 215
press 2012, 2056, 208, 217n.38
public 2001, 2089, 21113
Senate and Congress (Capitol Hill) 2057, 210
Greek War of Independence 10910
Philippine question 197, 202, 20713
anti-imperialists against acquisition 21011
expansionists (or imperialists) for acquisition 210
Uspensky, Gleb 187
USS Maine episode 205, 208, 213
Valladolid debate (1550) 24n.12
Varouxakis, Georgios xi, 90, 95n.97 and n.103
Vattel, Emer de 11, 16, 23, 30n.116, 31, 41
Victoria, Queen 41, 139, 149, 1523, 155, 15960, 167n.106, 185, 192n.35
Vincent, R. J. 17, 22, 82, 86
Vitoria, Francisco de 1516, 17, 201, 22, 28n.73 and 74, 31
American Indians 15, 201
just war 1516
precursor of idea of humanitarian intervention 16, 201, 28n.74
Walker, Thomas Alfred 612 (table 4.1), 68, 123
Walzer, Michael 2, 8990, 96n.106, 214
war crimes 4, 5
Wellington, Duke of 114, 116, 11821
Westlake, John 37, 42, 46, 57, 61 (table 4.1), 68, 73, 80n.162, 214
Westphalia, Treaty (or Peace) of (1648) 11, 14, 23
Woodhouse, Christopher Montague 117
myth of 23
Weyler, General Valeriano 2034
Wheaton, Henry 34, 412, 5960 (table 4.1), 105, 121, 197
Wight, Martin 228
Williams, Howard 84
Williams, W. A. 202
Wilson, George Grafton 612 (table 4.1), 689, 213
Wilson Doctrine 198
Winfield, Percy H. 11, 62 (table 4.1), 70, 72
Wolff, Christian 11, 23, 313, 50n.16
Woodford, Stewart L. 2045
Woodhouse, Christopher Montague 117
Woolsey, Theodore Dwight 41, 60 (table 4.1), 63, 67, 197
Woolsey, Theodore Salisbury 612 (table 4.1), 68, 213
Young Turks 489, 102
foreign intervention 489
Ypsilantis, Alexander 1067, 111

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