Select bibliography
in Vaccinating Britain

Select bibliography

Archival sources

The National Archives, Kew, London

BD 25/104, Smallpox outbreak in South Wales: Reports and correspondence

BN 10/229, Leaflets, posters and press advertisements: diphtheria immunisation

BN 13/360, Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979

BN 35/57, Immunisation and vaccination statistics

BN 124/10, Vaccine Damage Payments Scheme: Ministerial discussions

BS 14/28, Rubella vaccination campaign

CAB 128/61/18, Cabinet minutes 5 May 1977

CAB 129/195/14, Cabinet memoranda 29 April 1977

CAB 129/195/16, Cabinet memoranda 2 May 1977

EF 7/2998, Advisory committees on dangerous pathogens and genetic manipulation: Smallpox vaccination for laboratory workers

FD 1/8290, First report on BCG and vole bacillus vaccines in the prevention of TB in adolescents

FD 4/272, A study of diphtheria in two areas of Great Britain

FD 23/1028, Continuation of vaccine trials during 1957

FD 23/1031, Press conference on polio vaccine held on 27th February 1957

FD 23/1058, Polio vaccine crisis 1957 to January 1960: Papers produced in 1957

FD 23/1059, Polio vaccine crisis 1957 to January 1960: Papers produced in 1958

FD 23/1060, Polio vaccine crisis 1957 to January 1960: Papers produced in 1959

HO 45/10768/273078, Anti-inoculation propaganda among the troops issued by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

INF 12/238, Ministry of Health: Diphtheria immunisation 1953–1954

LCO 20/1293, The National Association for Deaf Blind and Rubella Children

MH 55/293, National Anti-Vaccination League: Anti-vaccination inoculation and immunisation propaganda

MH 55/902, Smallpox vaccination: Publicity

MH 55/936, Diphtheria immunisation campaign

MH 55/1720, Vaccination and innoculation: objections to anti-vaccination propaganda

MH 55/1828, Outbreak on board SS Mooltan: Minutes

MH 55/1829, Outbreak on board SS Mooltan: Correspondence

MH 55/1830, Outbreak on board SS Mooltan: Quarantine control procedure

MH 55/1836, Memorandum on smallpox control

MH 55/2191, Diphtheria prophylaxis: Publicity campaign

MH 55/2458, Poliomyelitis policy 1953–56

MH 55/2460, Poliomyelitis policy 1956–57

MH 55/2461, Poliomyelitis policy 1957

MH 55/2464, Poliomyelitis policy 1958–59

MH 55/2469, Poliomyelitis policy 1960–61

MH 55/2472, Poliomyelitis policy 1961

MH 55/2473, Policy: Introduction of live oral vaccine for routine vaccination

MH 55/2510, Vaccination and control: Representations by British Medical Association

MH 134/151, Diphtheria and whooping cough: Combined prophylactic

MH 134/156, Inoculation campaign: Statistical results

MH 148/364, Vaccination policy after declaration of eradication

MH 154/61, Smallpox vaccination sub-committee 1963–65

MH 154/62, Smallpox vaccination sub-committee 1962–63

MH 154/268, Withdrawal of recommendation for vaccination in early childhood

MH 154/270, Cessation of commercial supplies by Lister Institute pending world wide eradication of smallpox

MH 154/404, Importations of smallpox into England and Wales 1936–1970

MH 154/1053, Compensation for victims of immunisation and accidents

MH 154/1057, European Commission of Human Rights application number 7154/75 by the Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children

MH 154/1464, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation: Rubella vaccination sub-committee 1976–78

MH 154/1465, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation: Rubella vaccination sub-committee 1978

MH 154/1466, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation: Rubella vaccination sub-committee 1978

MH 154/1471, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation: Rubella vaccination sub-committee 1979

PIN 35/549, Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children


Education (Administrative Provisions) Act 1907.

National Health Service Act 1946.

National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947.

Vaccination Act 1840.

Vaccination Act 1853.

Vaccination Act 1898.

Vaccination Act 1907.

Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979.


Coventry Evening Telegraph

Coventry Standard

Daily Express

Daily Mail

Daily Mirror

Daily Post [Liverpool]

Daily Telegraph




Manchester Guardian

New Statesman


Sunday Pictorial

Sunday Times

The Times

Secondary sources

Abbasi, Kamran, ‘Man, mission, rumpus’, British Medical Journal, 322:7281 (2001), 306.

Abel-Smith, Brian and Peter Townsend, The Poor and the Poorest: A New Analysis of the Ministry of Labour's Family Expenditure Surveys of 1953–54 and 1960 (London: Bell, 1965).

Action Medical Research, ‘History’ (undated) (accessed 24 August 2017).

Agerholm, Margaret, ‘Importation of poliomyelitis vaccine’, The Lancet, 2:6986 (1957), 270.

Agnew, R. A. L., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 1:5276 (1962), 482.

Alaszewski, Andy and Tom Horlick-Jones, ‘How can doctors communicate information about risk more effectively?’, British Medical Journal, 327:7417 (2003), 728–31.

Alcock, Sharon, ‘How parents decide on MMR’, British Medical Journal, 324:7335 (2002), 492.

Allen, Arthur, Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine's Greatest Lifesaver (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007).

Anon, ‘A measles vaccine withdrawn’, British Medical Journal, 1:5647 (1969), 794–5.

———, ‘American polio vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 1:5029 (1957), 1229–30.

———, ‘Annual Meeting, Belfast: Scientific proceedings: Symposium: Virus diseases’, British Medical Journal, 2:5300 (1962), 318–20.

———, ‘British poliomyelitis vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 1:5030 (1957), 1291–2.

———, ‘Epidemiology section’, British Medical Journal, 1:4658 (1950), 914–15.

———, ‘For further debate’, British Medical Journal, 3:5767 (1971), 129.

———, ‘Help for victims of immunizations’, British Medical Journal, 1:5856 (1973), 758–9.

———, ‘Immunization ups and downs’, British Medical Journal, 2:5299 (1962), 250.

———, ‘Polio fantasies’, British Medical Journal, 1:5018 (1957), 571–2.

———, ‘Poliomyelitis vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 2:5041 (1957), 405–6.

———, ‘Prevention of whooping-cough by vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 1:4721 (1951), 1463–71.

———, ‘Smallpox in England’, British Medical Journal, 1:5272 (1962), 164–5.

———, ‘Social survey of diphtheria immunization’, British Medical Journal, 2:4461 (1946), 21.

———, ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 2:5300 (1962), 311–12.

———, ‘Whooping-cough immunisation’, British Medical Journal, 2:6078 (1977), 5–6.

AP Archive, ‘Polio inoculations’ (original video clip dated 13 April 1959) (accessed 24 August 2017).

Arie, Sophie, ‘Compulsory vaccination and growing measles threat’, British Medical Journal, 358 (2017), j3429.

Armstrong, David, ‘Origins of the problem of health-related behaviours: A genealogical study’, Social Studies of Science, 39:6 (2009), 909–26.

———, Political Anatomy of the Body : Medical Knowledge in Britain in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

Arnold, David, Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-century India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).

Arnoldi, Jakob, Risk: An Introduction (Cambridge: Polity, 2009).

Artenstein, Andrew W., ‘Smallpox’, in Andrew W. Artenstein (ed.), Vaccines: A Biography (New York: Springer, 2010), pp. 61–9.

———, ed. Vaccines: A Biography (New York: Springer, 2010).

Artenstein, Nicholas C. and Andrew W. Artenstein, ‘The discovery of viruses and the evolution of vaccinology’, in Andrew W. Artenstein (ed.), Vaccines: A Biography (New York: Springer, 2010), pp. 141–58.

Ashley, Jack, Acts of Defiance (London: Reinhardt, 1992).

Ashraf, Haroon, ‘US expert group rejects link between MMR and autism’, The Lancet 357:9265 (2001), 1341.

Ashtiyani, S. C. and A. Amoozandeh, ‘Rhazes diagnostic differentiation of smallpox and measles’, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 12:4 (2010), 480–3.

Axelsson, Per, ‘The Cutter Incident and the development of a Swedish polio vaccine, 1952–1957’, Dynamis 32:2 (2012), 311–28.

Ayo, Nike, ‘Understanding health promotion in a neoliberal climate and the making of health conscious citizens’, Critical Public Health, 22:1 (2012), 99–105.

Badenoch, J., ‘Big bang for vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 297:6651 (1988), 750–1.

Baggott, Rob, Public Health: Policy and Politics, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

Baker, Jeffrey P., ‘The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974–1986’, Vaccine, 21:25–26 (2003), 4003–10.

Barnes, Diana, ‘The public life of a woman of wit and quality: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the vogue for smallpox inoculation’, Feminist Studies, 38:2 (2012), 330–62.

Barratt, Helen, ‘MMR vaccine row raises questions of clinical freedom’, British Medical Journal, 323:7308 (2001), 300.

———, ‘Scottish GPs to be sent discussion packs on MMR vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 323:7312 (2001), 532.

Barrowcliffe, D. G., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 2:5306 (1962), 734.

Barry, Norman, ‘Neoclassicism, the New Right and British social welfare’, in Robert M. Pages and Richard Silburn (eds), British Social Welfare in the Twentieth Century (London: Macmillan, 1999), pp. 55–79.

Baxby, Derrick, ‘The end of smallpox’, History Today, 49:3 (1999), 14–16.

BBC, ‘The Richard Dimbleby Lecture’ (original broadcast 23 November 1978) (accessed 19 June 2017).

BBC News, ‘Meningitis B petition becomes UK's most signed’, BBC News (19 February 2016) (accessed 20 August 2016).

Beaumont, Catriona, Housewives and Citizens: Domesticity and the Women's Movement in England, 1928–64 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013).

Beck, Ulrich, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (London: Sage, 1992).

———, World at Risk (Cambridge: Polity, 2009).

Bedford, Helen and David Elliman, ‘Concerns about immunisation’, British Medical Journal, 320:7229 (2000), 240–3.

Begg, N. T. and N. D. Noah, ‘Immunisation targets in Europe and Britain’, British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 291:6506 (1985), 1370–1.

Begg, Norman T., O. N. Gill and Joanne M. White, ‘COVER (Cover of Vaccination Evaluated Rapidly): Description of the England and Wales scheme’, Public Health, 103:2 (1989), 81–9.

Begg, Norman, Mary Ramsay, Joanne White and Zoltan Bozoky, ‘Media dents confidence in MMR vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 316:7130 (1998), 561.

Bellaby, Paul, ‘Communication and miscommunication of risk: Understanding UK parents’ attitudes to combined MMR vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 327:7417 (2003), 725–8.

Bennett, Michael, ‘Jenner's ladies: Women and vaccination against smallpox in early nineteenth-century Britain’, History, 93:312 (2008), 497–513.

Berridge, Virginia, ‘ “Hidden from history”? Oral history and the history of health policy’, Oral History, 38 (2010), 99–100.

———, Marketing Health (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

———, ‘Thinking in time: Does health policy need history as evidence?’, The Lancet, 375:9717 (2010), 798–9.

———, ‘Using history in policy and practice’, in Virginia Berridge, Martin Gorsky and Alex Mold (eds), Public Health in History (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2011), pp. 221–24.

Berridge, Virginia and Alex Mold, ‘Professionalisation, new social movements and voluntary action in the 1960s and 1970s’, in Matthew Hilton and James McKay (eds), The Ages of Voluntarism: How We Got to the Big Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 114–34.

Beveridge, William H., Social Insurance and Allied Services (Cmd 6404) (London: HMSO, 1942).

Bhattacharya, Sanjoy, Expunging Variola: The Control and Eradication of Smallpox in India, 1947–1977 (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2006).

Birks, P. H., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 2:5300 (1962), 340.

Bivins, Roberta, Alternative Medicine? A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

———, ‘ “The people have no more love left for the Commonwealth”: Media, migration and identity in the 1961–62 British smallpox outbreak’, Immigrants & Minorities, 25:3 (2007), 263–89.

———, Contagious Communities: Medicine, Migration, and the NHS in Post-War Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Blaxill, Luke and Jane K. Seymour, ‘Adventures in text mining with the London MOH Annual Reports: Towards an alternative history of interwar public health’, Conference paper (London Health Histories, Wellcome Trust, London, 26 May 2016).

Blume, Stuart, ‘Anti-vaccination movements and their interpretations’, Social Science & Medicine, 62:3 (2006), 628–42.

———, Immunization: How Vaccines Became Controversial (London: Reaktion, 2017).

Blyth Brooke, C. O. S., Annual Report on the Public Health of Finsbury for the Year 1959 (Finsbury: The Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury, 1960).

Boddice, Rob, ‘Vaccination, fear and historical relevance’, History Compass, 14:2 (2016), 71–8.

Bonnett, E. J. S., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 2:5305 (1962), 675.

Borysiewicz, Leszek K., ‘Prevention is better than cure’, The Lancet, 375:9713 (2010), 513–23.

Bousfield, Guy, ‘Smallpox vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 3:5769 (1971), 302.

Bowden, Sue and Alex Sadler, ‘Getting it right? Lessons from the interwar years on pulmonary tuberculosis control in England and Wales’, Medical History, 59:1 (2015), 101–35.

Bower, Hilary, ‘MMR vaccine policy is backed’, British Medical Journal, 316:7136 (1998), 955.

Box, Kathleen, Diphtheria Immunisation: An Inquiry Made by the Social Survey for the Ministry of Health (London: The Social Survey, 1945).

Box, Kathleen and Geoffrey Thomas, ‘The Wartime Social Survey’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 107:3/4 (1944), 151–89.

Boyce, Tammy, Health, Risk and News: The MMR Vaccine and the Media (New York: Peter Lang, 2007).

Bradford Hill, A. and J. Knowelden, ‘Inoculation and poliomyelitis’, British Medical Journal, 2:4669 (1950), 1–6.

British Medical Association Board of Science and Education, Childhood Immunisation: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals (London: British Medical Association, 2003).

Brown, Katrina F., J. Simon Kroll, Michael J. Hudson, Mary Ramsay, John Green, Charles A. Vincent, Graham Fraser and Nick Sevdalis, ‘Omission bias and vaccine rejection by parents of healthy children: Implications for the influenza A/H1N1 vaccination programme’, Vaccine, 28:25 (2010), 4181–5.

Brown, Katrina F., J. Simon Kroll, Michael J. Hudson, Mary Ramsay, John Green, Susannah J. Long, Charles A. Vincent, Graham Fraser and Nick Sevdalis, ‘Factors underlying parental decisions about combination childhood vaccinations including MMR: A systematic review’, Vaccine, 28:26 (2010), 4235–48.

Brown, Theodore M., Elizabeth Fee and Victoria Stepanova, ‘Halfdan Mahler: Architect and defender of the World Health Organization “Health for All by 2000” declaration of 1978’, American Journal of Public Health, 106:1 (2016), 38–9.

Browne, S. E., ‘Press reports on Belfast’, British Medical Journal, 2:5300 (1962), 340.

Brunton, Deborah, The Politics of Vaccination: Practice and Policy in England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, 1800–1874 (New York: University Rochester Press, 2008).

Bryder, Linda, ‘The King Edward VII Welsh National Memorial Association and its policy towards tuberculosis, 1910–48’, Welsh History Review 13:2 (1986), 194–216.

———, ‘ “We shall not find salvation in inoculation”: BCG vaccination in Scandinavia, Britain and the USA, 1921–1960’, Social Science & Medicine, 49:9 (1999), 1157–67.

Burgess, David C., Margaret A. Burgess and Julie Leask, ‘The MMR vaccination and autism controversy in United Kingdom 1998–2005: Inevitable community outrage or a failure of risk communication?’, Vaccine, 24:18 (2006), 3921–8.

Burnton, Simon, ‘The forgotten story of … Jeff Hall, the footballer whose death turned the tide against polio’, Guardian (9 December 2016) (accessed 24 August 2017).

Bush, Barbara, ‘Colonial research and the social sciences at the end of empire: The West Indian Social Survey, 1944–57’, Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History, 41:3 (2013), 451–74.

Butler, Declan, Ewen Callaway and Erika Check Hayden, ‘How Ebola-vaccine success could reshape clinical-trial policy’, Nature, 524:7563 (2015), 13–14.

Calhoun, Craig, ‘Introduction: Habermas and the public sphere’, in Craig Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992), pp. 1–48.

Callender, David, ‘Vaccine hesitancy: More than a movement’, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 12:9 (2016), 2464–8.

Calman, Kenneth C., ‘Communication of risk: Choice, consent, and trust’, The Lancet, 360:9327 (2002), 166–8.

Camargo, Kenneth and Roy Grant, ‘Public health, science, and policy debate: Being right is not enough’, American Journal of Public Health, 105:2 (2014), 232–5.

Campos-Outcalt, Doug, ‘Measles: Why it's still a threat’, The Journal of Family Practice, 66:7 (2017), 446–9.

Cantor, David, ‘Representing “the public”: Medicine, charity and the public sphere in twentieth-century Britain’, in Steve Sturdy (ed.), Medicine, Health and the Public Sphere in Britain: 1600–2000 (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 145–68.

Carroll, Linda and Samuel Sarmiento, ‘ “Striking” results from early Zika vaccine trial’, NBC News (4 August 2016) (accessed 19 August 2016).

Carroll, Patrick E., ‘Medical police and the history of public health’, Medical History, 46:4 (2002), 461–94.

Carter, Tim and Stephen E. Roberts, ‘Infectious disease mortality in British merchant seamen and Lascars since 1900: From causes to controls’, International Journal of Maritime History, 29:4 (2017), 788–815.

Casiday, Rachel, ‘Risk communication in the British pertussis and MMR vaccine controversies’, in Peter Bennett, Kenneth Calman, Sarah Curtis and Denis Fischbacher (eds), Risk Communication and Public Health, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 129–46.

Casper, Monica J. and Laura M. Carpenter, ‘Sex, drugs, and politics: The HPV vaccine for cervical cancer’, Sociology of Health & Illness, 30:6 (2008), 886–99.

Cassier, Maurice, ‘Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: Creating a new industry and a health market’, Science in Context, 21:2 (2008), 253–78.

Castle, Barbara, Fighting All the Way (London: Pan Books, 1994).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ‘Pertussis (whooping cough)’ (27 June 2016) (accessed 6 June 2017).

Chalke, H. D., Report of the Medical Officer of Health for the Year 1959 (Camberwell: Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, 1960).

Chalmers, Iain and Andy Haines, ‘Commentary: Skilled forensic capacity needed to investigate allegations of research misconduct’, British Medical Journal, 342 (2011): d3977.

Chatterjee, Archana and Catherine O'Keefe, ‘Current controversies in the USA regarding vaccine safety’, Expert Review of Vaccines, 9:5 (2010), 497–502.

Chen, Robert T. and Frank DeStefano, ‘Vaccine adverse events: Causal or coincidental?’, The Lancet, 351:9103 (1998), 611–12.

Chen, Robert T. and Beth Hibbs, ‘Vaccine safety: Current and future challenges’, Pediatric Annals, 27:7 (1998), 445–55.

Church, M., ‘Return of whooping cough’, British Medical Journal, 1:6157 (1979), 195.

Clark, Peder, ‘ “Problems of today and tomorrow”: prevention and the National Health Service in the 1970s’, Social History of Medicine (forthcoming).

Cohen, Jon, Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine (London: Norton, 2001).

Coker, Richard, ‘Civil liberties and public good: Detention of tuberculous patients and the Public Health Act 1984’, Medical History, 45:3 (2001), 341–58.

Colgrove, James, State of Immunity: The Politics of Vaccination in Twentieth-Century America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

———, ‘The McKeown thesis: A historical controversy and its enduring influence’, American Journal of Public Health, 92:5 (2002), 725–9.

Condie, Roy G., ‘Smallpox vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 3:5773 (1971), 534.

Cox, P. J., Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Smallpox Outbreak in London in March and April 1973 (Cmnd 5626) (London: HMSO, 1974).

Crawford, L. A., ‘Rubella vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 1:6125 (1978), 1485.

Cusick, James, ‘Meningitis B: Petition calling for vaccine breaks government website record’, Independent (19 February 2016) (accessed 20 August 2016).

Dale, Iain, Conservative Party General Election Manifestos 1900–1997 (Abingdon: Routledge, 2000).

Daley, Allen, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1949 (London: London County Council, 1950).

Daley, Allen, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1950 (London: London County Council, 1951).

Daly, Ann, Inventing Motherhood: The Consequences of an Ideal (New York: Schocken, 1983).

Dane, D. S., G. W. A. Dick, J. H. Connolly, O. D. Fisher, Florence McKeown, Moya Briggs, Robert Nelson and Dermot Wilson, ‘Vaccination against poliomyelitis with live virus vaccines’, British Medical Journal, 1:5010 (1957), 59–74.

Davenport, Romola J., Jeremy Boulton and Leonard Schwarz, ‘Urban inoculation and the decline of smallpox mortality in eighteenth-century cities – A reply to Razell’, Economic History Review, 69:1 (2016), 188–214.

Davenport, Romola, Leonard Schwarz and Jeremy Boulton, ‘The decline of adult smallpox in eighteenth-century London’, Economic History Review, 64:4 (2011), 1289–314.

Davies, S. and W. H. Crichton, ‘Smallpox vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 3:5771 (1971), 430–1.

Davies, Sara E. and Belinda Bennett, ‘A gendered human rights analysis of Ebola and Zika: Locating gender in global health emergencies’, International Affairs, 92:5 (2016), 1041–60.

Davis, Angela, Modern Motherhood: Women and Family in England, c. 1945–2000 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012).

Day, Alison, ‘ “An American tragedy”. The Cutter Incident and its implications for the Salk polio vaccine in New Zealand 1955–1960’, Health & History: Journal of the Australian & New Zealand Society for the History of Medicine, 11:2 (2009), 42–61.

———, ‘ “The magical formula”: Reactions and responses to diphtheria immunisation in New Zealand 1920–1960’, Health & History: Journal of the Australian & New Zealand Society for the History of Medicine, 15:2 (2013), 53–71.

Day, Michael, ‘Doctor and MPs in Italy are assaulted after vaccination law is passed’, British Medical Journal, 358 (2017): j3721.

Deer, Brian, ‘How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed’, British Medical Journal, 342 (2011), c5347.

———, ‘Reflections on investigating Wakefield’, British Medical Journal, 340 (2010), c672.

Dennison, F. Roy, Annual Report on the Health Services for the Year 1955 (West Ham: County Borough of West Ham, 1956).

———, Annual Report on the Health Services for the Year 1956 (West Ham: County Borough of West Ham, 1957).

Department of Health, Building on the Best: Choice, Responsiveness and Equity in the NHS (Cm 6079) (London: TSO, 2003).

———, The Health of the Nation: A Strategy for Health in England (Cm 1986) (London: HMSO, 1992).

Department of Health and Social Security, Promoting Better Health: The Government's Programme for Improving Primary Health Care (Cm 249) (London: HMSO, 1987).

———, Public Health in England: The Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Future Development of the Public Health Function (Cm 289) (London: HMSO, 1988).

Department of Health and Social Security, Committee on Safety of Medicines and Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, Whooping Cough: Reports from the Committee on Safety of Medicines and the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (London: HMSO, 1981).

Department of Health and Social Security, Department of Education and Science, Scottish Office and Welsh Office, Prevention and Health (Cmnd 7047) (London: HMSO, 1977).

Dick, G. W. A., ‘Letter: Whooping-cough vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 4:5989 (1975), 161.

———, ‘Routine smallpox vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 3:5767 (1971), 163–6.

———, ‘Epidemiology of poliomyelitis’, British Medical Journal, 1:5122 (1959), 618–19.

———, ‘Prevention of virus diseases in the community’, British Medical Journal, 2:5315 (1962), 1275–80.

Dick, G. W. A. and D. S. Dane, ‘Live poliomyelitis vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 1:5125 (1959), 853–4.

———, ‘Vaccination against poliomyelitis with live virus vaccines’, British Medical Journal, 2:5106 (1958), 1184–6.

Dick, George, ‘Obituary: Duncan Guthrie’, Independent (20 October 1994) (accessed 24 August 2017).

Dixon, C. W., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 1:5287 (1962), 1262–6.

———, Smallpox (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1962).

Dobson, Roger, ‘Parents’ champion or loose cannon?’, British Medical Journal, 324:7334 (2002), 386.

Donoughue, Bernard, Prime Minister: The Conduct of Policy under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan (London: Cape, 1987).

Douglas, John and William Edgar, ‘Smallpox in Bradford, 1962’, British Medical Journal, 1:5278 (1962), 612–14.

Douglas, Mary and Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).

Downs, Julie S., Wändi Bruine de Bruin and Baruch Fischhoff, ‘Parents’ vaccination comprehension and decisions’, Vaccine, 26:12 (2008), 1595–607.

Drakeford, Mark and Ian Butler, Scandal, Social Policy and Social Welfare, 2nd edn (Bristol: Policy Press, 2006).

Dredger, Alice, ‘What if not all parents who question vaccines are foolish and anti-science?’, New Statesman (4 June 2015) (accessed 29 March 2018).

Dubé, Eve, Maryline Vivion and Noni E. MacDonald, ‘Vaccine hesitancy, vaccine refusal and the anti-vaccine movement: Influence, impact and implications’, Expert Review of Vaccines, 14:1 (2015), 99–117.

Duncan, Peter, ‘Failing to professionalise, struggling to specialise: The rise and fall of health promotion as a putative specialism in England, 1980–2000’, Medical History, 57:3 (2013), 377–96.

Durbach, Nadja, Bodily Matters: The Anti-Vaccination Movement in England, 1853–1907 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).

———, ‘Class, gender, and the conscientious objector to vaccination, 1898–1907’, Journal of British Studies, 41:1 (2002), 58–83.

Dyer, Clare, ‘Co-author of Wakefield paper on MMR vaccine wins his appeal against decision by GMC to strike him off’, British Medical Journal, 344 (2012), e1745.

———, ‘Commission withdraws Legal Aid for parents suing over MMR vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 327:7416 (2003), 640.

———, ‘Courts can decide that vaccine has caused harm despite lack of evidence’, British Medical Journal, 357 (2017), j3081.

———, ‘NHS told to pay £10m to patients infected with hepatitis C’, British Medical Journal, 322:7289 (2001), 751.

Dyer, Owen, ‘Measles outbreak in Somali American community follows anti-vaccine talks’, British Medical Journal, 357 (2017), j2378.

Edgerton, David, ‘C. P. Snow as anti-historian of British science: Revisiting the technocratic moment, 1959–1964’, History of Science, 43:2 (2005), 187–208.

Editors of The Lancet, ‘Retraction – Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children’, The Lancet, 375:9713 (2010), 445.

Edwards, David, ‘Vaccination: A victim of its own success?’, Journal of Small Animal Practice, 45:11 (2004), 535.

Elliman, David and Helen Bedford, ‘MMR vaccine: The continuing saga’, British Medical Journal, 322:7280 (2001), 183–4.

———, ‘Safety and efficacy of combination vaccines’, British Medical Journal, 326:7397 (2003), 995–6.

———, ‘Should the UK introduce compulsory vaccination?’, The Lancet, 381:9876 (2013), 1434–6.

Engels, Eric A., Hormuzd A. Katki, Nete M. Nielsen, Jeanette F. Winther, Henrik Hjalgrim, Flemming Gjerris, Philip S. Rosenberg and Morten Frisch, ‘Cancer incidence in Denmark following exposure to poliovirus vaccine contaminated with simian virus 40’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 95:7 (2003), 532–9.

Engineer, Amanda, ‘Illustrations from the Wellcome Library: The Society of Medical Officers of Health: Its history and its archive’, Medical History, 45:1 (2001), 97–114.

Erichsen, Vibeke, ‘The health of the school child?: An historical comparison of inspection schemes in Britain and Norway’, Dynamis, 13 (1993), 29–53.

Eriksen, Anne, ‘Advocating inoculation in the eighteenth century: Exemplarity and quantification’, Science in Context, 29:2 (2016), 213–39.

———, ‘Cure or protection? The meaning of smallpox inoculation, ca 1750–1775’, Medical History, 57:4 (2013), 516–36.

Evans, M., H. Stoddart, L. Condon, E. Freeman, M. Grizzell and R. Mullen, ‘Parents’ perspectives on the MMR immunisation: A focus group study’, The British Journal of General Practice, 51:472 (2001), 904–10.

Farrington, P., M. Rush, E. Miller, S. Pugh, A. Colville, A. Flower, J. Nash and P. Morgan-Capner, ‘A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and measles/mumps/rubella vaccines’, The Lancet, 345:8949 (1995), 567–9.

Federman, Ross S., ‘Understanding vaccines: A public imperative’, The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 87:4 (2014), 417–22.

Fenner, Frank, Donald A. Henderson, Isao Arita, Jezek Zdenek, Ivan Danilovich Ladnyi and World Health Organization, Smallpox and Its Eradication (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1988).

Ferriman, Annabel, ‘London Mayor attacked for doing “irreparable damage” on MMR’, British Medical Journal, 325:7355 (2002), 66.

Fine, Paul, ‘Stopping routine vaccination for tuberculosis in schools’, British Medical Journal, 331:7518 (2005), 647–8.

Fischoff, Baruch and John Kadvany, Risk: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Fisher, Tim, ‘Fatherhood and the British fathercraft movement, 1919–39’, Gender & History, 17:2 (2005), 441–62.

Fitzpatrick, Mike, ‘Choice’, The Lancet, 363:9409 (2004), 668.

Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977).

———, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (London: Tavistock, 1973).

Fox, Rosemary, Helen's Story (London: John Blake, 2006).

Francis, Thomas, Evaluation of the 1954 Field Trial of Poliomyelitis Vaccine. Final Report (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1957).

Fraser, Nancy, ‘Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy’, Social Text, 25/26 (1990), 56–80.

Fraser, S. M., ‘Leicester and smallpox: The Leicester Method’, Medical History, 24:3 (1980), 315–32.

French, Henry, Report of the Committee on the Cost of Home Information Services (Cmnd 7836) (London: HMSO, 1949).

Fyfe, G. Matthew and J. B. Fleming, ‘Encephalomyelitis after vaccination in Fife’, British Medical Journal, 2:4325 (1943), 671–4.

Gachelin, Gabriel, ‘The designing of anti-diphtheria serotherapy at the Institut Pasteur (1888–1900): The role of a supranational network of microbiologists’, Dynamis, 27 (2007), 45–62.

Gangarosa, E. J., A. M. Galazka, C. R. Wolfe, L. M. Phillips, E. Miller, R. T. Chen and R. E. Gangarosa, ‘Impact of anti-vaccine movements on pertussis control: The untold story’, The Lancet, 351:9099 (1998), 356–61.

Geffen, D. H., ‘The incidence of paralysis occurring in London children within four weeks after immunization’, The Medical Officer, 83 (1950), 137–40.

General Medical Council, Dr Andrew Jeremy Wakefield: Determination on Serious Professional Misconduct (SPM) and Sanction (London: General Medical Council, 24 May 2010).

Gilbert, Pamela K., ‘Producing the public, public medicine in private spaces’, in Steve Sturdy (ed.), Medicine, Health and the Public Sphere in Britain: 1600–2000 (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 43–59.

Gillespie, James A., ‘International Organizations and the Problem of Child Health, 1945–1960’, Dynamis 23 (2003), 115–42.

Goldberg, David, ‘MMR, autism, and Adam’, British Medical Journal, 320:7231 (2000), 389.

Goldman, Stephen A., ‘Limitations and strengths of spontaneous reports data’, Clinical Therapeutics, 20 (1998), C40–4.

Goldstein, Diane E., Once upon a Virus AIDS Legends and Vernacular Risk Perception (Logan: Utah State University Press, 2004).

Gomi, Harumi and Hiroshi Takahashi, ‘Why is measles still endemic in Japan?’, The Lancet, 364:9431 (2004), 328–9.

Gorsky, Martin, ‘Public health in interwar Britain: Did it fail?’, Dynamis, 28 (2008), 175–98.

Gouyon, Jean-Baptiste, ‘Making science at home: Visual displays of space science and nuclear physics at the Science Museum and on television in postwar Britain’, History & Technology, 30:1/2 (2014), 37–60.

Global Polio Eradication Initiative, ‘Global eradication of wild Poliovirus Type 2 declared’ (20 September 2015) (accessed 23 August 2017).

Grabenstein, John D., ‘Toxoid vaccines’, in Andrew W. Artenstein (ed.), Vaccines: A Biography (New York: Springer, 2010), pp. 105–24.

Grant, Mariel, ‘Towards a Central Office of Information: Continuity and change in British government information policy, 1939–51’, Journal of Contemporary History, 34:1 (1999), 49–67.

Gray, P. G. and Ann Cartwright, Diphtheria Immunisation in 1951: An Inquiry Carried Out in May 1951 for the Ministry of Health (London: The Social Survey, August 1951).

Greene, Jeremy A., ‘Therapeutic infidelities: “Noncompliance” enters the medical literature, 1955–1975’, Social History of Medicine, 3:1 (2004), 327–43.

Greenhalgh, Charlotte, ‘The travelling social survey: Social research and its subjects in Britain, Australia and New Zealand, 1930s–1970s’, History Australia, 13:1 (2016), 124–38.

Greenough, Paul, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg, ‘Introduction’, in Christine Holmberg, Stuart Blume, and Paul Greenough (eds), The Politics of Vaccination: A Global History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017), pp. 1–16.

Griffiths, S., T. Jewell and P. Donnelly, ‘Public health in practice: The three domains of public health’, Public Health, 119:10 (2005), 907–13.

Habermas, Jürgen, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989).

Hagan, Pat, ‘Routine vaccination for tuberculosis ends in UK’, British Medical Journal, 331:7509 (2005), 128.

Hall, Stuart, ‘The great moving right show’, in Stuart Hall and Martin Jacques (eds), The Politics of Thatcherism (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1983) pp. 19–39.

Hamborsky, Jennifer, Andrew Kroger and Charles Wolfe (eds), Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 13th edn (Washington, DC: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).

Hamlin, Christopher, Public Health and Social Justice in the Age of Chadwick: Britain, 1800–1854 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Hammond, Phil, ‘The editor asks M.D. to peer review Private Eye's MMR coverage’, Dr Phil (18 February 2010) (accessed 11 July 2017).

Hampton, Jameel, Disability and the Welfare State in Britain: Changes in Perception and Policy 1948–1979 (Bristol: Policy Press, 2016).

Hanley, Anne, Medicine, Knowledge and Venereal Diseases in England, 1886–1916 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).

Hanley, James G., ‘The public's reaction to public health: Petitions submitted to Parliament, 1847–1848’, Social History of Medicine, 15:3 (2002), 393–411.

Hardy, Anne, The Epidemic Streets: Infectious Disease and the Rise of Preventive Medicine, 1856–1900 (Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1993).

Hargreaves, Ian, Justin Lewis and Tammy Speers, Towards a Better Map: Science, the Public and the Media (London: Economic and Social Research Council, 2003).

Hartley, Percival Horton-Smith, A Study of Diphtheria in Two Areas of Great Britain: With Special Reference to the Antitoxin Concentration of the Serum of Inoculated and Non-Inoculated Patients and Other Persons; and the Relation of This to the Incidence, Type and Severity of the Disease (London: HMSO, 1950).

Hawker, Jeremy I., Babatunde Olowokure, Annette L. Wood, Richard C. Wilson and Richard Johnson, ‘Widening inequalities in MMR vaccine uptake rates among ethnic groups in an urban area of the UK during a period of vaccine controversy (1994–2000)’, Vaccine, 25:43 (2007), 7516–19.

Hay, Colin, ‘Chronicles of a death foretold: The winter of discontent and construction of crisis of British Keynesianism’, Parliamentary Affairs, 63 (2010), 446–70.

Hays, J. N., Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impact on Human History (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005).

Health and Social Care Information Centre, ‘NHS immunisation statistics: England, 2004–05’ (22 September 2005) (accessed 23 August 2017).

———, ‘NHS immunisation statistics: England, 2014–15’ (23 September 2015) (accessed 23 August 2017).

Heller, Jacob, The Vaccine Narrative (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2008).

Heller, Tom, Dick Heller, Stephen Pattison and Tom Heller, ‘Vaccination against mumps, measles, and rubella: Is there a case for deepening the debate?’, British Medical Journal, 323:7317 (2001), 838–40.

Hendriks, Jan and Stuart Blume, ‘Measles vaccination: Before the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine’, American Journal of Public Health, 103:8 (2013), 1393–401.

Hennock, E. P., ‘Vaccination policy against smallpox, 1835–1914: A comparison of England with Prussia and Imperial Germany’, Social History of Medicine, 11:1 (1998), 49–71.

Heyck, Hunter and David Kaiser, ‘Introduction’, Isis, 101:2 (2010), 362–66.

Hilton, Matthew, Nick Crowson, Jean-François Mouhot and James McKay, The Politics of Expertise : How NGOs Shaped Modern Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

History and Policy, ‘History and policy’ (undated) (accessed 30 September 2016).

Hobbins, Peter, ‘ “Immunisation is as popular as a death adder”: The Bundaberg Tragedy and the politics of medical science in interwar Australia’, Social History of Medicine 24, no. 2 (August 2011): 426–44.

Hobson-West, Pru, ‘ “Trusting blindly can be the biggest risk of all”: Organised resistance to childhood vaccination in the UK’, Sociology of Health & Illness, 29:2 (2007), 198–215.

Honigsbaum, Mark, ‘Between securitisation and neglect: Managing Ebola at the borders of global health’, Medical History, 61:2 (2017), 270–94.

Hooker, Claire, ‘Diphtheria, immunisation and the Bundaberg Tragedy: A study of public health in Australia’, Health and History, 2:1 (2000), 52–78.

Hooker, Claire and Alison Bashford, ‘Diphtheria and Australian public health: Bacteriology and its complex applications, c. 1890–1930’, Medical History, 46:1 (2002), 41–64.

Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W. Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment (London: Verso, 1997).

Horton, Richard, ‘A statement by the editors of The Lancet’, The Lancet, 363:9411 (2004), 820–1.

———, MMR: Science and Fiction – Exploring a Vaccine Crisis (London: Granta, 2004).

———, ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363:9411 (2004), 747–9.

Howard, Colin R., ‘The impact on public health of the 19th century anti-vaccination movement’, Microbiology Today, 30:1 (2003), 22–5.

Howell, Philip, ‘A private Contagious Diseases Act: Prostitution and public space in Victorian Cambridge’, Journal of Historical Geography, 26:3 (2000), 376–402.

Hoyt, Kendall, Long Shot: Vaccines for National Defense (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012).

Huisman, Frank and Harry Oosterhuis, ‘The politics of health and citizenship: Historical and contemporary perspectives’, in Frank Huisman and Harry Oosterhuis (eds), Heath and Citizenship: Political Cultures of Health in Modern Europe (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2014), pp. 1–40.

Hüntelmann, Axel C., ‘Diphtheria serum and serotherapy. Development, production and regulation in “fin de siecle” Germany’, Dynamis, 27 (2007), 107–31.

Huzair, Farah and Steve Sturdy, ‘Biotechnology and the transformation of vaccine innovation: The case of the hepatitis B vaccines 1968–2000’, Studies in History & Philosophy of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, 64 (2017), 11–21.

Information Services Division Scotland, ‘Trends in immunisation uptake by quarter, calendar and financial year – Scotland’ (Edinburgh, June 2016).

International Conference on Primary Health Care, Declaration of Alma-Ata (Alma-Ata: World Health Organization, 1978).

Jalabi, Raya, ‘California declares Disneyland measles outbreak over as vaccine fight rages on’, Guardian (17 April 2015) (accessed 12 January 2018).

Janko, Matthew, ‘Vaccination: A victim of its own success’, Virtual Mentor, 14:1 (2012), 3.

Jarrett, Caitlin, Rose Wilson, Maureen O'Leary, Elisabeth Eckersberger, Heidi J. Larson and SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy, ‘Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy – a systematic review’, Vaccine, 33:34 (2015), 4180–90.

Jefferies, Sally, Sylvia McShane, Juliet Oerton, Christina R. Victor and Rosemary Beardow, ‘Low immunization uptake rates in an inner-city health district: Fact or fiction?’ Journal of Public Health, 13:4 (1991), 312–17.

Jenner, Edward, An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ a Disease Discovered in Some of the Western Counties of England, Particularly Gloucestershire and Known by the Name of the Cow Pox (London: Sampson Low, 1789).

Johnson, Norman, The Welfare State in Transition: The Theory and Practice of Welfare Pluralism (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987).

Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, Whooping Cough Vaccination: Review of the Evidence on Whooping Cough Vaccination (London: HMSO, 1977).

Jones, Allan, ‘Elite Science and the BBC: A 1950s Contest of Ownership’, British Journal for the History of Science, 47:4 (2014), 701–23.

Jose, Jim and Kasey McLoughlin, ‘John Stuart Mill and the Contagious Diseases Acts: Whose law? Whose liberty? Whose greater good?’ Law & History Review, 34:2 (2016), 249–79.

Journal of Molecular Pathology, ‘Pre-published Molecular Pathology paper’, Journal of Molecular Pathology (3 February 2002) (accessed 5 January 2017).

Kaplan, Colin, ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 2:5298 (1962), 189.

Keja, K., C. Chan, G. Hayden and R. H. Henderson, ‘Expanded programme on immunization’, World Health Statistics Quarterly, 41:2 (1988), 59–63.

Kennedy, Catriona, Carol Gray Brunton and Rhona Hogg, ‘ “Just that little bit of doubt”: Scottish parents’, teenage girls’ and health professionals’ views of the MMR, H1N1 and HPV vaccines’, International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21:1 (2014), 3–10.

Kennedy, Ian, The Report of the Public Inquiry into Children's Heart Surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary 1984–1995: Learning from Bristol (Cm 5207) (London: TSO, 2001).

Kickbusch, I., ‘The development of international health policies – accountability intact?’ Social Science & Medicine 51:6 (2000), 979–89.

Kimura, Mikio and Harumi Kuno-Sakai, ‘Pertussis vaccines in Japan – a clue toward understanding of Japanese attitude to vaccines’, Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 37:1 (1991), 45–7.

Kinrade, Derek, Alf Morris: People's Parliamentarian: Scenes from the Life of Lord Morris of Manchester (London: National Information Forum, 2007).

Kirk, Dudley, ‘Demographic transition theory’, Population Studies, 50:3 (1996), 361–87.

Kitta, Andrea, Vaccinations and Public Concern in History: Legend, Rumor, and Risk Perception (New York: Routledge, 2012).

Klein, N., K. Morgan and M. H. Wansbrough-Jones, ‘Parents’ beliefs about vaccination: The continuing propagation of false contraindications’, British Medical Journal, 298:6689 (1989), 1687.

Klein, Rudolf, The New Politics of the NHS: From Creation to Reinvention, 7th edn (Oxford: Radcliffe, 2013).

Kmietowicz, Zosia, ‘Government launches intensive media campaign on MMR’, British Medical Journal, 324:7334 (2002), 383.

———, ‘Separate vaccines could endanger children’, British Medical Journal, 323:7315 (2001), 711.

Kuehni, Claudia E., Adrian M. Brooke, Anthony Davis and Michael Silverman, ‘Vaccinations as risk factors for wheezing disorders’, The Lancet, 358:9288 (2001), 1186.

Kulenkampff, M., J. S. Schwartzman and J. Wilson, ‘Neurological complications of pertussis inoculation’, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 49:1 (1974), 46–9.

Lancet, The, ‘Time to look beyond MMR in autism research’, The Lancet, 359:9307 (2002), 637.

Larson, Heidi J., ‘The world must accept that the HPV vaccine is safe’, Nature, 528:7580 (2015), 9.

———, ‘Vaccine trust and the limits of information’, Science, 353:6305 (2016), 1207–8.

Larson, Heidi J., Louis Z. Cooper, Juhani Eskola, Samuel L. Katz and Scott Ratzan, ‘Addressing the vaccine confidence gap’, The Lancet, 378:9790 (2011), 526–35.

Larson, Heidi J., Alexandre de Figueiredo, Zhao Xiahong, William S. Schulz, Pierre Verger, Iain G. Johnston, Alex R. Cook and Nick S. Jones, ‘The state of vaccine confidence 2016: Global insights through a 67-country survey’, EBioMedicine, 12 (2016), 295–301.

Larson, Heidi J., Caitlin Jarrett, Elisabeth Eckersberger, David M. D. Smith and Pauline Paterson, ‘Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: A systematic review of published literature, 2007–2012’, Vaccine, 32:19 (2014), 2150–9.

Larson, Heidi J., William S. Schulz, Joseph D. Tucker and David M. D. Smith, ‘Measuring vaccine confidence: Introducing a global vaccine confidence index’, PLOS Currents Outbreaks (2015), doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.ce0f6177bc97332602a8e3fe7d7f7cc4.

LeBas, Elizabeth, ‘ “When every street became a cinema”: The film work of Bermondsey Borough Council's Public Health Department, 1923–1953’, History Workshop Journal, 39 (1995), 42–66.

Lee, Catherine, ‘Prostitution and Victorian society revisited: The Contagious Diseases Acts in Kent’, Women's History Review, 21:2 (2012), 301–16.

Leveson, Lord, An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press. Report, Volume II (HC 780-II, 2012–13) (London: TSO, 2012).

Lewis, Jane, ‘The medical profession and the state: GPs and the GP contract in the 1960s and the 1990s’, Social Policy & Administration, 32:2 (1998), 132–50.

———, The Politics of Motherhood: Child and Maternal Welfare in England, 1900–1939 (London: Croom Helm, 1980).

———, ‘The prevention of diphtheria in Canada and Britain 1914–1945’, Journal of Social History, 20:1 (1986), 163–76.

———, What Price Community Medicine? The Philosophy, Practice, and Politics of Public Health since 1919 (Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1986).

Lindner, Ulrike and Stuart S. Blume, ‘Vaccine innovation and adoption: Polio vaccines in the UK, the Netherlands and West Germany, 1955–1965’, Medical History, 50:4 (2006), 425–46.

Lishman, F. J. G., ‘Smallpox vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 3:5773 (1971), 534.

Loughlin, Kelly, ‘The history of health and medicine in contemporary Britain: Reflections on the role of audio-visual sources’, Social History of Medicine, 13:1 (2000), 131–45.

Maartens, Brendan, ‘From propaganda to “information”: Reforming government communications in Britain’, Contemporary British History (2016).

McCarthy, Michael, ‘California ends vaccine exemptions on grounds of belief – will other states follow?’, British Medical Journal, 351 (2015), h3635.

McCarthy, Nick, ‘Polio campaigning widow of Blues legend Jeff Hall dies after cancer battle’ (7 June 2016) (accessed 24 August 2017).

McCloskey, Bertram P., ‘The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis’, The Lancet, 255:6606 (1950), 659–63.

MacFarlane, John T. and Michael Worboys, ‘Showers, sweating and suing: Legionnaires’ disease and “new” infections in Britain, 1977–90’, Medical History, 56:1 (2012), 72–93.

McKeown, Thomas and R. G. Brown, ‘Medical evidence related to English population changes in the eighteenth century’, Population Studies, 9:2 (1955), 119–41.

Maglen, Kristen, ‘ “The first line of defence”: British quarantine and the port sanitary authorities in the nineteenth century’, Social History of Medicine, 15:3 (2002), 413–28.

Majeed, Azeem, ‘Referral of Dr Peter Mansfield to the GMC’, British Medical Journal, 323:7309 (2001), 356.

Manning, Nathan, ‘The relational self and the political engagements of young adults’, Journal of Sociology, 50:4 (2014), 486–500.

Marshall, T. H., Citizenship and Social Class, and Other Essays. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950).

Martin, J. K., ‘Local paralysis in children after injections’, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 25:121 (1950), 1–14.

Marx, Karl, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (London: FQ Publishing, 2007).

Mayor, Susan, ‘Medical Research Council review sets research agenda for autism’, British Medical Journal, 324:7328 (2002), 10.

———, ‘Researcher from study alleging link between MMR and autism warns of measles epidemic’, British Medical Journal, 327:7423 (2003), 1069.

Mazumdar, Tulip, ‘Zika vaccine possible “within months” ’, BBC News (4 March 2016) (accessed 19 August 2016).

Medical Research Council, ‘B.C.G. and vole bacillus vaccines in the prevention of tuberculosis in adolescents’, British Medical Journal, 1:4964 (1956), 413–27.

———, ‘B.C.G. and vole bacillus vaccines in the prevention of tuberculosis in adolescents’, British Medical Journal, 2:5149 (1959), 379–96.

———, Review of Autism Research: Epidemiology and Causes (London: Medical Research Council, 2001).

———, ‘Vaccination against whooping-cough; Relation between protection in children and results of laboratory tests; A report to the Whooping-Cough Immunization Committee of the Medical Research Council and to the Medical Officers of Health for Cardiff, Leeds, Leyton, Manchester, Middlesex, Oxford, Poole, Tottenham, Walthamstow, and Wembley’, British Medical Journal, 2:4990 (1956), 454–62.

Meldrum, Marcia, ‘ “A calculated risk”: The Salk polio vaccine field trials of 1954’, British Medical Journal, 317:7167 (1998), 1233–6.

Melling, Joseph and Pamela Dale, ‘Medical Officers of Health, gender and government responses to the problem of cancer in Britain, 1900–1940’, Medical History, 53:4 (2009), 537–60.

Mercer, A. J., ‘Smallpox and epidemiological-demographic change in Europe: The role of vaccination’, Population Studies, 39:2 (1985), 287–307.

Meszaros, Jacqueline R., David A. Asch, Jonathan Baron, John C. Hershey, Howard Kunreuther and Joanne Schwartz-Buzaglo, ‘Cognitive processes and the decisions of some parents to forego pertussis vaccination for their children’, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49:6 (1996), 697–703.

Mills, Heather, Private Eye Special Report: MMR: The Story So Far (London: Pressdam, 2002).

Millward, Gareth, ‘A disability act? The Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979 and the British government's response to the pertussis vaccine scare’, Social History of Medicine, 30:2 (2016), 429–47.

———, ‘ “A matter of commonsense”: The Coventry poliomyelitis epidemic 1957 and the British public’, Contemporary British History, 31:3 (2017), 384–406.

———, ‘Social security policy and the early disability movement – expertise, disability and the government, 1965–1977’, Twentieth Century British History, 26:2 (2015), 274–97.

Ministry of Health, Annual Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year 1967 (Cmnd 3702) (London: HMSO, 1968).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health Covering the Period from 1st April, 1950 to 31st December, 1951. Part II on the State of the Public Health, Being the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer for the Year 1950 (Cmd 8582) (London: HMSO, 1952).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health Covering the Period from 1st April, 1950 to 31st December, 1951. Part III on the State of the Public Health (Cmd 8787) (London: HMSO, 1953).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year 1957. Part II on the State of the Public Health Being the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer (Cmnd 559) (London: HMSO, 1958).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year 1958. Part II on the State of the Public Health Being the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer (Cmnd 871) (London: HMSO, 1959).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year 1960. Part II. On the State of the Public Health. Being the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer (Cmnd 1550) (London: HMSO, 1961).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December, 1953 Part II on the State of the Public Health (Cmd 9307) (London: HMSO, 1954).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December, 1954 Part II on the State of the Public Health Being the Report of the Chief Medical Officer for the Year 1954 (Cmd 9627) (London: HMSO, 1955).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December, 1955 Part II on the State of the Public Health (Cmnd 16) (London: HMSO, 1956).

———, Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December, 1956. Part II on the State of the Public Health Being the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer for the Year 1956 (Cmnd 325) (London: HMSO, 1957).

———, Summary Report by the Ministry of Health for the Period from 1st April, 1939 to 31st March 1941 (Cmd 6340) (London: HMSO, 1942).

———, Summary Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st March, 1943 (Cmd 6468) (London: HMSO, 1943).

MMR Expert Group, ‘Report of the MMR Expert Group’, Scottish Government (April 2002) (accessed 24 August 2017).

Moberly, Tom, ‘UK doctors re-examine case for mandatory vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 358 (2017), j3414.

Mold, Alex, Making the Patient-Consumer: Patient Organisations and Health Consumerism in Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015).

Mooney, Graham, Intrusive Interventions: Public Health, Domestic Space, and Infectious Disease Surveillance in England, 1840–1914 (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2015).

Mooney, Helen, ‘More “responsible” science reporting is needed, Leveson Inquiry hears’, British Medical Journal, 343 (2011), d8051.

Moore, Martin D., Managing Diabetes, Managing Medicine: Chronic Disease and Clinical Bureaucracy in Post-War Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2019).

Morgan, Montagu Travers, Annual Report of the Medical Officer of Health to 31st December, 1949 (London: Port of London Health Authority, 1950).

Morris, A. and D. Aldulaimi, ‘New evidence for a viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease and development disorder?’, Molecular Pathology, 55:2 (2002), 83.

Moulin, Anne Marie, ‘La metaphore vaccine: de l'inoculation a la vaccinologie’, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 14:2 (1992), 271–97.

Moxon, E. Richard and Claire-Anne Siegrist, ‘The next decade of vaccines: Societal and scientific challenges’, The Lancet, 378:9788 (2011), 348–59.

Mukherjee, Siddhartha, ‘The race for a Zika vaccine’, New Yorker (22 August 2016) (accessed 19 August 2016).

Murch, Simon, Mike Thomson and John Walker-Smith, ‘Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine’, The Lancet, 351:9106 (1998), 908.

Murch, Simon H., Andrew Anthony, David H. Casson, Mohsin Malik, Mark Berelowitz, Amar P. Dhillon, Michael A. Thomson, Alan Valentine, Susan E. Davies and John A. Walker-Smith, ‘Retraction of an interpretation’, The Lancet, 363:9411 (2004), 750.

Naqvi, Nasim Hasan, ‘A medical classic: Al-Razi's treatise on smallpox and measles’, Muslim Heritage (2009) (accessed 19 September 2016).

Nathanson, Neal and Alexander D. Langmuir, ‘The Cutter Incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the spring of 1955’, American Journal of Epidemiology, 78:1 (1963), 29–60.

National Health Service, ‘Childhood vaccines timeline’ (16 July 2016) (accessed 12 January 2018).

National Health Services Scotland, ‘Childhood immunisation statistics Scotland: Quarter and year ending 31 December 2015’ (22 March 2016) (accessed 23 August 2017).

Newlands, Emma, Civilians into Soldiers: War, the Body and British Army Recruits, 1939–45 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014).

Newman, Janet and John Clarke, Publics, Politics and Power: Remaking the Public in Public Services (London: Sage, 2009).

NHS Digital, ‘Childhood vaccination coverage statistics, England, 2016–17’ (20 September 2017) (accessed 12 January 2018).

NHS Digital, ‘NHS Immunisation Statistics: England, 2015–16’, (London, September 2016).

Nicoll, A. and D. Jenkinson, ‘Decision making for routine measles/MMR and whooping cough immunisation’, British Medical Journal, 297:6645 (1988), 405–7.

Nicoll, Angus, David Elliman and Euan Ross, ‘MMR vaccination and autism 1998’, British Medical Journal, 316:7133 (1998), 715–16.

Nigam, Aruna, Pikee Saxena, Anita S. Acharya, Archana Mishra and Swaraj Batra, ‘HPV vaccination in India: Critical appraisal’, ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2014 (2014),

O'Brien, Sarah J., Ian G. Jones and Peter Christie, ‘Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine’, The Lancet, 351:9106 (1998), 906–7.

Ocaña, Esteban Rodríguez, ‘The social production of novelty: Diphtheria serotherapy, “herald of the new medicine” ’, Dynamis, 27 (2007), 21–31.

Offit, Paul A., ‘The anti-vaccination epidemic: Whooping cough, mumps and measles are making an alarming comeback, thanks to seriously misguided parents’, Wall Street Journal (Online) (24 September 2014) (accessed 19 August 2016).

———, ‘The Cutter Incident, 50 years later’, New England Journal of Medicine, 352:14 (2005), 1411–12.

———, The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005).

———, Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases (New York: Smithsonian Books, 2007).

O'Hara, Glen, ‘Towards a new Bradshaw? Economic statistics and the British state in the 1950s and 1960s’, Economic History Review 60:1 (2007), 1–34.

Oliver, Michael, The Politics of Disablement (London: Macmillan Education, 1990).

Opal, Steven M., ‘A brief history of microbiology and immunology’, in Andrew W. Artenstein (ed.), Vaccines: A Biography (New York: Springer, 2010), pp. 31–56.

Oshinsky, David M., Polio: An American Story (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Pareek, M. and H. M. Pattison, ‘The two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation schedule: Factors affecting maternal intention to vaccinate’, The British Journal of General Practice, 50:461 (2000), 969–71.

Parish, H. J., A History of Immunization (Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1965).

Parrish, David, ‘A party contagion: Party politics and the inoculation controversy in the British Atlantic world, c.1721–1723’, Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, 39:1 (2016), 41–58.

Paul, John Rodman, A History of Poliomyelitis (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971).

Payling, Daisy, ‘ “The people who write to us are the people who don't like us”: Public responses to the Government Social Survey's Survey of Sickness, 1943–1952’, Journal of British Studies (forthcoming, 2018).

Pearson, Colin, Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury Vol.1 (Cmnd 7054-I) (London: HMSO, 1978).

Pearson, Jessica, ‘French colonialism and the battle against the WHO Regional Office for Africa’, Hygiea Internationalis: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 13:1 (2016), 65–80.

Peckham, C. A., ‘Action Research for the Crippled Child, British Postgraduate Medical Federation, Institute of Child Health and Department of Paediatric Epidemiology’, The Peckham Report: National Immunisation Study: Factors Influencing Immunisation Uptake in Childhood (London: Department of Paediatric Epidemiology, Institute of Child Health; Horsham, West Sussex: Action Research for the Crippled Child, 1989).

Petersen, Alan R. and Deborah Lupton, The New Public Health: Health and Self in the Age of Risk (London: Sage, 2000).

Petrovic, Marko, Richard Roberts and Mary Ramsay, ‘Second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: Questionnaire survey of health professionals’, British Medical Journal, 322:7278 (2001), 82–5.

Pickstone, John, ‘Production, community and consumption: The political economy of twentieth-century medicine’, in Roger Cooter and John Pickstone (eds), Medicine in the Twentieth Century (Abingdon: Routledge, 2003), 1–20.

Poliomyelitis Vaccines Committee (Medical Research Council), ‘Assessment of the British vaccine against poliomyelitis’, British Medical Journal, 1:5030 (1957), 1271–77.

Porras, María Isabel and María Victoria Cabellero, ‘Vaccines and vaccination against smallpox and poliomyelitis: Economies and values’, Conference paper (European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Conference, University of Cologne, September 2015).

Porter, Dorothy, Health Citizenship: Essays in Social Medicine and Biomedical Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).

———, Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999).

Porter, Dorothy and Roy Porter, ‘The politics of prevention: Anti-vaccinationism and public health in nineteenth-century England’, Medical History, 32:3 (1988), 231–52.

Price-Smith, Andrew, ‘The plagues of affluence: Human ecology and the case of the SARS epidemic’, Environmental History, 20:4 (2015), 765–78.

Public Health Agency [Northern Ireland], ‘Vaccination coverage: COVER’ (March 2017) (accessed 23 August 2017).

Public Health England, ‘Measles notifications and deaths in England and Wales: 1940 to 2016’, (accessed 2 August 2017).

———, ‘Measles outbreaks across England’ (25 July 2018) (accessed 27 July 2018).

———, ‘Notifiable diseases: historic annual totals’ (28 November 2016) (accessed 5 May 2017).

———, ‘Table 6: Pertussis notifications and deaths, England and Wales: 1940–2014’ (5 May 2016) (accessed 6 June 2017).

Public Health England and Department of Health, Immunisation against Infectious Disease, 2nd edn (London: Public Health England, 2013).

Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration, Sixth Report for Session 1976–77: Whooping Cough Vaccination (HC571) (London: HMSO, 1977).

Public Health Wales, ‘Measles outbreak: Data’ (19 February 2015) (accessed 27 July 2018).

Rafferty, Sarah, Matthew R. Smallman-Raynor and Andrew D. Cliff, ‘Variola minor in England and Wales: The geographical course of a smallpox epidemic and the impediments to effective disease control, 1920–1935’, Journal of Historical Geography, 59 (2018), 2–14.

Ramsay, Mary E., J. Yarwood, D. Lewis, H. Campbell and J. M. White, ‘Parental confidence in measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: Evidence from vaccine coverage and attitudinal surveys’, British Journal of General Practice, 52:484 (2002), 912–16.

Ramsay, Sarah, ‘UK government tries to control MMR panic’, The Lancet, 359:9306 (2002), 590.

———, ‘UK starts campaign to reassure parents about MMR-vaccine safety’, The Lancet, 357:9252 (2001), 290.

Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā, William Alexander Greenhill and Naval Medical School (U.S.). A Treatise on the Small-pox and Measles (London: Sydenham Society, 1848).

Razzell, Peter, The Conquest of Smallpox: The Impact of Inoculation on Smallpox Mortality in Eighteenth Century Britain (Firle: Caliban Books, 1977).

———, ‘The decline of adult smallpox in eighteenth-century London: A commentary’, Economic History Review, 64:4 (2011), 1315–35.

Redden, Candace Johnson, ‘Health as citizenship narrative’, Polity, 34:3 (2002), 355–70.

Redfern, Michael, The Royal Liverpool Children's Inquiry Report (HC 12-II, 2000–01) (London: TSO, 2001).

Reinhardt, Bob H., The End of a Global Pox: America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015).

Riolo, Maria A., Aaron A. King and Pejman Rohani, ‘Can vaccine legacy explain the British pertussis resurgence?’, Vaccine, 31 (2013), 5903–8.

Roberts, Karen A., Mary Dixon-Woods, Ray Fitzpatrick, Keith R. Abrams and David R. Jones, ‘Factors affecting uptake of childhood immunisation: A Bayesian synthesis of qualitative and quantitative evidence’, The Lancet, 360:9345 (2002), 1596–9.

Roberts, Richard J., Quentin D. Sandifer, Merion R. Evans, Maria Z. Nolan-Farrell and Paul M. Davis, ‘Reasons for non-uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella catch up immunisation in a measles epidemic and side effects of the vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 310:6995 (1995), 1629–39.

Roemer-Mahler, Anne and Stefan Elbe, ‘The race for Ebola drugs: Pharmaceuticals, security and global health governance’, Third World Quarterly, 37:3 (2016), 487–506.

Rogers, Chris, ‘The politics of economic policy making in Britain: A re-assessment of the 1976 IMF crisis’, Politics & Policy, 37:5 (2009), 971–94.

Rogers, Naomi, Dirt and Disease: Polio before FDR (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992).

———, Polio Wars: Sister Elizabeth Kenny and the Golden Age of American Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Rosen, George, A History of Public Health (New York: MD Publications, 1958).

Rouse, A., ‘Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR Vaccine’, The Lancet, 351:9112 (1998), 1356.

RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership, ‘Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: Final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial’, The Lancet, 386:9988 (2015), 31–45.

Ruane, Kevin and James Ellison, ‘Managing the Americans: Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan and the pursuit of “power-by-proxy” in the 1950s’, Contemporary British History, 18:3 (2004), 147–67.

Runciman, W. G., ‘Review of Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit, Jürgen Habermas’, British Journal of Sociology, 15:4 (1964), 366.

Rusnock, Andrea, ‘Medical statistics and hospital medicine: The case of the smallpox vaccination’, Centaurus, 49:4 (2007), 337–59.

———, Vital Accounts: Quantifying Health and Population in Eighteenth-Century England and France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Russell, Patrick and James Piers Taylor (eds), Shadows of Progress: Documentary Film in Post-war Britain (London: British Film Institute, 2010).

SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy, Report of the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014).

Salmon, R. L., ‘Science in the face of disaster’, The Lancet, 363:9414 (2004), 1084–5.

Savage, Mike, Identities and Social Change in Britain since 1940: The Politics of Method (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

———, ‘Affluence and social change in the making of technocratic middle-class identities: Britain, 1939–55’, Contemporary British History, 22:4 (2008): 457–76.

Schar, M., ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 1:5275 (1962), 403.

Schmalstieg, Frank C. and Armond S. Goldman, ‘Birth of the science of immunology’, Journal of Medical Biography, 18:2 (2010), 88–98.

Schmidt, James, ‘Publicity and the public sphere – reading Habermas as a historian of concepts’, Persistent Enlightenment (31 March 2013) (accessed 25 August 2016).

Scott, J. A., Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and Principal School Medical Officer for the Year 1957 (London: London County Council, 1958).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1951 (London: London County Council, 1952).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1952 (London: London County Council, 1953).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1953 (London: London County Council, 1954).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1954 (London: London County Council, 1955).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1955 (London: London County Council, 1956).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1956 (London: London County Council, 1957).

———, Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer for the Year 1957 (London: London County Council, 1958).

Sennett, Richard, The Fall of Public Man (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

Sewell, Claire, ‘ “If one member of the family is disabled the family as a whole is disabled”: Thalidomide children and the emergence of the family carer in Britain, c. 1957–1978’, Family & Community History, 18:1 (2015), 37–52.

Seymour, Jane K., Martin Gorsky and Shakoor Hajat, ‘Health, wealth and party in inter-war London’, Urban History, 44:3 (2017), 464–91.

Shaw, Alison, ‘Gordon Stewart, expert in public health and colleague of Fleming who helped pioneer the use of penicillin’, Herald (15 November 2016) (accessed 19 June 2017).

Sheard, Sally, ‘Quacks and clerks: Historical and contemporary perspectives on the structure and function of the British medical civil service’, Social Policy & Administration, 44:2 (2010), 193–207.

———, The Passionate Economist: How Brian-Abel Smith Shaped Global Health and Social Welfare (Bristol: Policy Press, 2013).

Shooter, R. A., Report of the Investigation into the Cause of the 1978 Birmingham Smallpox Occurrence (HC 668, 1979–80) (London: HMSO, 1980).

Sibbald, Bonnie, Ian Enzer, Cary Cooper, Usha Rout and Valerie Sutherland, ‘GP job satisfaction in 1987, 1990 and 1998: Lessons for the future?’, Family Practice, 17:5 (2000), 364–71.

Simon, Jonathan, ‘The origin of the production of diphtheria antitoxin in France, between philanthropy and commerce’, Dynamis, 27 (2007), 63–82.

Sirrs, Christopher, ‘Accidents and apathy: The construction of the “Robens philosophy” of occupational safety and health regulation in Britain, 1961–1974’, Social History of Medicine, 29:1 (2016), 66–88.

Smallman-Raynor, Matthew and Andrew D. Cliff, ‘The geographical spread of the 1947 poliomyelitis epidemic in England and Wales: Spatial wave propagation of an enigmatic epidemiological event’, Journal of Historical Geography, 40 (2013), 36–51.

Smith, F. B., ‘Ethics and disease in the later nineteenth century: The Contagious Diseases Acts’, Historical Studies, 15:57 (1971), 118–35.

Smith, Jennifer, ‘Illustrations from the Wellcome Institute Library: The Archive of the Health Visitors’ Association in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre’, Medical History, 39:3 (1995), 358–67.

Smith, Kendall A., ‘Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?’, Frontiers in Immunology, 3:68 (2012).

Smith, Philip J., Susan Y. Chu and Lawrence E. Barker, ‘Children who have received no vaccines: Who are they and where do they live?’, Pediatrics, 114:1 (2004), 187–95.

Smith, Richard, ‘Do patients need to read research?’, British Medical Journal, 326:7402 (2003), 1307.

Smith, T., ‘Measles and the government’, British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition), 294:6578 (1987), 989–90.

South, Mary, ‘Smallpox inoculation campaigns in eighteenth-century Southampton, Salisbury and Winchester’, The Local Historian, 43:2 (2013), 122–37.

Speers, Tammy and Justin Lewis, ‘Journalists and jabs: Media coverage of the MMR vaccine’, Communication & Medicine, 1:2 (2004), 171–81.

Spier, R. E., ‘Perception of risk of vaccine adverse events: A historical perspective’, Vaccine, 20: Supplement 1 (2001), S78–84.

Stanton, Jennifer, ‘What shapes vaccine policy? The case of hepatitis B in the UK’, Social History of Medicine, 7:3 (1994), 427–46.

Starkey, Pat, ‘The feckless mother: Women, poverty and social workers in wartime and post-war England’, Women's History Review, 9:3 (2000), 539–57.

Stefanoff, Pawel, Svenn-Erik Mamelund, Mary Robinson, Eva Netterlid, Jose Tuells, Marianne A. Riise Bergsaker, Harald Heijbel and Joanne Yarwood, ‘Tracking parental attitudes on vaccination across European countries: The Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication Project (VACSATC)’, Vaccine, 28:35 (2010), 5731–7.

Stefler, Denes and Raj Bhopal, ‘Lessons to be learnt from other countries about mandatory child vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 344 (2012), e4036.

Stephen, Wendy E., ‘Re: UK doctors re-examine case for mandatory vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 358 (2017), j3414.

Stewart, A. B., Report of the County Medical Officer of Health and Principal School Medical Officer for the Year 1964 (London: London County Council, 1966).

Stewart, G. T., ‘The law tries to decide whether whooping cough vaccine causes brain damage: Professor Gordon Stewart gives evidence’, British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 293:6540 (1986), 203–4.

———, ‘Vaccination against whooping-cough’, The Lancet, 1:8005 (1977), 234–7.

Stewart, James, ‘Smallpox1962 – An online archive of the outbreaks in Wales and England’ (2012) (accessed 5 April 2017).

Straus, Eugene and Alex Straus, Medical Marvels: The 100 Greatest Advances in Medicine (Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2006).

Sturdy, Steve, ‘Introduction: Medicine, health and the public sphere’, in Steve Sturdy (ed.), Medicine, Health and the Public Sphere in Britain: 1600–2000 (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 1–24.

Styles, W. M., ‘Rubella immunisation’, British Medical Journal, 2:6140 (1978), 834.

Sunday Times, Suffer the Children: The Story of Thalidomide (New York: Viking Press, 1979).

Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Florence, ‘Discourses of “class” in Britain in “New Times” ’, Contemporary British History, 31:2 (2017), 294–317.

Swansea Research Unit of the Royal College of General Practitioners, ‘Effect of a low pertussis vaccination uptake on a large community’, British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition), 282:6257 (1981), 23–6.

Szreter, Simon, ‘The importance of social intervention in Britain's mortality decline c.1850–1914: A re-interpretation of the role of public health’, Social History of Medicine, 1:1 (1988), 1–38.

Telegraph, ‘Boys should get HPV vaccine to protect them from throat cancers, experts say’, Telegraph (10 July 2016) (accessed 19 August 2016).

Thane, Pat, Melanie Oppenheimer and Nicholas Deakin (eds), Voluntary Action in Britain since Beveridge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011).

Thomas, Patricia, Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and the Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine (New York: Public Affairs, 2001).

Topley, W. W. C. and G. S. Wilson, ‘The spread of bacterial infection. The problem of herd-immunity’, The Journal of Hygiene, 21:3 (1923), 243–9.

Torjesen, Ingrid, ‘UK adds hepatitis B to infant vaccination schedule’, British Medical Journal, 358 (2017), j3357.

Towghi, Fouzieyha, ‘The biopolitics of reproductive technologies beyond the clinic: Localizing HPV vaccines in India’, Medical Anthropology, 32:4 (2013), 325–42.

Ueda, Kohji, Chiaki Miyazaki, Yasufumi Hidaka, Kenji Okada, Koichi Kusuhara and Ryo Kadoya, ‘Aseptic meningitis caused by measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in Japan’, The Lancet, 346:8976 (1995), 701–2.

Uhlmann, V., C. M. Martin, O. Sheils, L. Pilkington, I. Silva, A. Killalea, S. B. Murch, J. Walker-Smith, M. Thomson, A. J. Wakefield and J. J. O'Leary, ‘Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease’, Molecular Pathology, 55:2 (2002), 84–90.

UK Government and Parliament Petitions, ‘Petition: Give the meningitis B vaccine to ALL children, not just newborn babies’ (15 September 2015) (accessed 23 August 2017).

UNdata, ‘Internet users (per 100 people)’. (accessed 22 June 2017).

Vara, Vauhini, ‘The race for an Ebola vaccine’, New Yorker (25 November 2014) (accessed 19 August 2016).

Vargha, Dora, ‘Between East and West: Polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 88:2 (2014), 319–42.

Various, ‘Health professionals’ attitudes to MMR vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 322:7294 (2001), 1120.

Various, ‘MMR vaccination and autism 1998’, British Medical Journal, 316:7147 (1998), 1824.

Various, ‘MMR vaccine debate’, British Medical Journal, 324:7339 (2002), 733.

Verweij, M. F. and Angus Dawson, ‘The meaning of “public” in “public health” ’, in M. F. Verweij and Angus Dawson (eds), Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007), pp. 13–29.

Vyse, A. J., N. J. Gay, J. M. White, M. E. Ramsay, D. W. G. Brown, B. J. Cohen, L. M. Hesketh, P. Morgan-Capner and E. Miller, ‘Evolution of surveillance of measles, mumps, and rubella in England and Wales: Providing the platform for evidence-based vaccination policy’, Epidemiologic Reviews, 24:2 (2002), 125–36.

Wakefield, A. J. and S. M. Montgomery, ‘Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine: Through a glass, darkly’, Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews, 19:4 (2000), 265–83; discussion 284–92.

Wakefield, A. J., S. H. Murch, A. Anthony, J. Linnell, D. M. Casson, M. Malik, M. Berelowitz, A. P. Dhillon, M. A. Thomson, P. Harvey, A. Valentine, S. E. Davies and J. A. Walker-Smith, ‘RETRACTED: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children’, The Lancet, 351:9103 (1998), 637–41.

Walker-Smith, John, ‘Autism, bowel inflammation, and measles’, The Lancet, 359:9307 (2002), 705–6.

Walkowitz, Judith R., Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

Warner, Michael, Publics and Counterpublics (Cambridge: Zone Books, 2002).

Wartime Social Survey, Diphtheria Immunisation Enquiry: A Survey of 2,026 Parents Made in July–August 1942, for the Ministry of Health (London: Wartime Social Survey, 1942).

Webster, Charles, ‘Healthy or hungry thirties?’, History Workshop, 13 (1982), 110–29.

Weisz, George, Chronic Disease in the Twentieth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014).

Welshman, John, ‘ “Bringing beauty and brightness to the back streets”: Health education and public health in England and Wales, 1890–1940’, Health Education Journal, 56:2 (1997), 199–209.

———, ‘Compulsion, localism, and pragmatism: The micro-politics of tuberculosis screening in the United Kingdom, 1950–1965’, Social History of Medicine, 19:2 (2006), 295–312.

———, ‘In search of the “problem family”: Public health and social work in England and Wales 1940–70’, Social History of Medicine, 9:3 (1996), 447–65.

———, Municipal Medicine: Public Health in Twentieth-Century Britain (Bern: Peter Lang, 2000).

———, ‘The Medical Officer of Health in England and Wales, 1900–1974: Watchdog or lapdog?’, Journal of Public Health, 19:4 (1997), 443–50.

Whiteley, Paul and Steve Winyard, Pressure for the Poor: The Poverty Lobby and Policy Making (London: Methuen, 1987).

Williams, Gareth and Ray Loadman, Paralysed with Fear: The Story of Polio (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

Williamson, Stanley, The Vaccination Controversy: The Rise, Reign and Fall of Compulsory Vaccination for Smallpox (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007).

Wilson, G. S., ‘B.C.G. vaccination in control of tuberculosis’, British Medical Journal, 2:4534 (1947), 855–9.

Wise, Jacqui, ‘Finnish study confirms safety of MMR vaccine’, British Medical Journal, 322:7279 (2001), 130.

Wolfe, Robert M. and Lisa K. Sharp, ‘Anti-vaccinationists past and present’, British Medical Journal, 325:7361 (2002), 430–2.

Worboys, Michael, Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

World Health Organization, Global Vaccine Action Plan (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013).

World Health Organization, ‘Measles continues to spread and take lives in Europe’ (11 July 2017) (accessed 12 January 2018).

———, ‘Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa’, (2014) (accessed 19 August 2016).

———, ‘Weekly epidemiological record’ (7 January 2011) (accessed 24 August 2017).

———, ‘Weekly epidemiological record’ (29 January 2016) (accessed 24 August 2017).

———, ‘WHO Director-General summarizes the outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding clusters of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome’ (2016) (accessed 19 August 2016).

World Health Organization, Rotary International, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and UNICEF, Global Polio Eradication Initiative Status Report 29 April 2013 (Geneva: Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 2013).

Wroe, Abigail L., Angela Bhan, Paul Salkovskis and Helen Bedford, ‘Feeling bad about immunising our children’, Vaccine, 23:12 (2005), 1428–33.

Yarwood, Joanne, ‘Communicating vaccine benefit and risk – lessons from the medical field’, Veterinary Microbiology, 117:1 (2006), 71–4.

Yarwood, Joanne, Karen Noakes, Dorian Kennedy, Helen Campbell and David Salisbury, ‘Tracking mothers attitudes to childhood immunisation 1991–2001’, Vaccine, 23:48–49 (2005), 5670–87.

Yuille, Duncan and Rowland Rogerson, ‘Vaccination against smallpox’, British Medical Journal, 1:5275 (1962), 402.

Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina, ‘Raising a nation of “good animals”: The New Health Society and health education campaigns in interwar Britain’, Social History of Medicine, 20:1 (2007), 73–89.

Archived internet sources

Department of Health, ‘Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR)’. http:/ Captured 13 December 2002, 09:27:53; accessed 11 July 2017.

———, ‘MMR: myths and truths’. Captured 19 October 2002, 07:32:21; accessed 11 July 2017.

———, ‘MMR the facts’. Captured 8 September 2002, 12:06:49; accessed 11 July 2017.

———, ‘MMR world map’. Captured 14 December 2002, 01:46:04; accessed 11 July 2017.

———, ‘Your questions answered’. Captured 3 December 2002, 00:10:27; accessed 11 July 2017.

JABS, ‘Fair warning’. Captured 25 October 2001, 14:41:25; accessed 1 July 2017.

———, ‘Welcome to JABS on the internet’. Captured 5 April 2001, 03:52:43; accessed 1 July 2017.

Legal Services Commission, ‘Decision to remove funding for MMR litigation upheld on appeal’. Captured 10 October 2003, 11:25:31; accessed 5 January 2017.

Society for the Autistically Handicapped, ‘Vaccines fact sheet’. Captured 2 September 2000, 06:08:43; accessed 1 July 2017.


Ministry of Health, Surprise Attack (1951).

Vaccinating Britain

Mass vaccination and the public since the Second World War


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 514 74 6
PDF Downloads 217 70 9