This book provides an account of the University of Manchester's struggle to meet the government's demands for the rapid expansion of higher education in the 1950s and the 1960s. It looks at the University's ambitious building programme: the controversial attempts to reform its constitution and improve its communications amid demands for greater democracy in the workplace, the struggle to retain its old pre-eminence in a competitive world where new ‘green field’ universities were rivalling older civic institutions. The book tells the story, not just from the point of view of administrators and academics, but also from those of students and support staff (such as secretaries, technicians and engineers). It not only uses official records, but also student newspapers, political pamphlets and reminiscences collected through interviews.
The Barbados National Archive (BNA), Black Rock, Barbados.
Eric Williams Memorial Collection (EWMC), University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Lewis Papers, Princeton University.
Library of the University of the West Indies, St Augustine Trinidad.
Maurice Stacey Archive (MSA), Birmingham University.
National Archives of Trinidad and Tobago (NATT), Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.
Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford.
The National Archives, London, United Kingdom.
National Records and Archives Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland, USA.
The Canberra Times.
The Manchester Guardian.
The Trinidad Guardian.
Colonial Research, 1942–1943, Cmd 6486.
Colonial Research, 1943–1944, Cmd 6535.
Colonial Research, 1944–1945, Cmd 6663.
Colonial Research, 1945–1946, Col. No. 208.
Colonial Research, 1946–1947, Cmd 7151.
Colonial Research, 1947–1948, Cmd 7493.
Colonial Research, 1948–1949, Cmd 7739.
Colonial Research, 1949–1950, Cmd 8063.
Colonial Research, 1950–1951, Cmd 8303.
Fuel Research Board, Fuel for Motor Transport (HMSO, 1921).
Fuel Research Board, Fuel for Motor transport. An interim memorandum (HMSO, 1920).
H. M. Petroleum Executive. Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on various matters concerning the production and utilisation of alcohol for power and traction purposes (1919), Cmd 218.
Report of the West India Royal Commission (1898), C.8655.
Report of the West India Royal Commission (1945) Cmd 6607.
Report of the West Indian Sugar Commission (1929), Cmd 3517.
Trinidad and Tobago Disturbances 1937: Report of the Commission (HMSO, 1938).
Other primary material
The Barbados Disturbances, 1937, Review – Reproduction of the Evidence and Report of the Commission, Bridgetown (Barbados: Advocate Co, 1937).
BWISA (Inc), Reports on Research Work 1943 (Barbados: Advocate Co, 1943).
BWISA (Incorporated) Handbook for 1954 (Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1954).
“Gentlemanly Professionals Within the Civil Service: Scientists as Insiders During the Interwar Period” (DPhil, University of Kent at Canterbury: 1997).
Through a Maze of Colour (Trinidad: Key Caribbean Publications, 1974).
“Colonial Development”, Lecture to Manchester Statistical Society (12 January 1949).
Industrial Development in the Caribbean (Kent House, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Caribbean Commission Central Secretariat, 1951).
“Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour”, The Manchester School 22 (1954), 139–191.
The State and Medical Research (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1939).
The Industrial Utilisation of Sugar Cane By-Products (Kent House, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Caribbean Commission Central Secretariat, 1950).
“Economic outlook, an upward trend”, New Commonwealth, Special Caribbean Supplement 30 (1955), p. xi.
“Economic advance in the West Indies”, New Commonwealth 35 (1958), 357.
“A program in the Caribbean”, Foreign Affairs 24 (1946), 703.
‘Food yeast: its nutritive value and its production from Empire sources’, Journal of the Royal Society of the Arts 93 (1950), 353–364.
“Depression, dust bowl, demography and drought: the colonial state and soil conservation in East Africa during the 1930s”, African Affairs, 83 (1984), 321–343.
Imperial Ecology: Environmental Order in the British Empire, 1895–1945 (Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2001).
Economic Development: The History of an Idea (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987).
and D. Killingray, The West Indies, British Documents on the End of Empire, Series B, 6 (London: HMSO, 1999).
and S. Stockwell, Imperial Policy and Colonial Practice, 1925–1945, British Documents on the End of Empire (London: HMSO, 1996).
and L. Bryder (eds), Historical Perspectives on the Role of the MRC: Essays in the History of the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom and its Predecessor, the Medical Research Committee (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Britain and Biological Warfare: Expert Advice and Science Policy, 1930–65 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001).
and J. McGregor (eds), Social History and African Environments (Oxford: James Currey, 2003).
“The Great Depression, colonial policy and industrialization in Jamaica”, Social and Economic Studies 37(1/2) (1988), 33–64.
“Colonial moral economy and the discipline of development: the Gezira scheme and ‘Modern’ Sudan”, Cultural Anthropology 12 (1997), 447–479.
The Forbidden Fuel: Power Alcohol in the Twentieth Century (New York: B. Griffin, 1982).
Negotiating Development: African Farmers and Colonial Experts at the Office du Niger, 1920–1960 (Westport: Heinemann, 2002).
On the March: Labour Rebellions in the British Caribbean, 1934–39 (Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995).
The Politics of Labour in the British Caribbean: The Social Origins of Authoritarianism and Democracy in the Labour Movement (Kingston: Ian Randle, 2001).
“Development as experiment: science and state-building in late colonial and post-colonial Africa, 1930–1970”, Osiris 15 (2000), 1501–1520.
Eric Williams: The Man and the Leader (Maryland: University Press of America, 1986).
A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783–1962 (London: Heinemann, 1983).
The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. VI, The Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).
Industrialisation and the British Colonial State: West Africa, 1939–1951 (London: Frank Cass, 1997).
“Cortisone and the politics of empire: imperialism and British medicine, 1918–1955”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 67 (1993), 463–493.
“The post-war political economy of Trinidad and Tobago”, New World Quarterly 4 (1967), 130–145.
Hailey, A Study in British Imperialism, 1872–1969 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Tate and Lyle: The Making of a Sugar Giant, 1859–1989 (London: Routledge, 1990).
and R. Noon, “The maverick Mr Cube: the resurgence of commercial marketing in postwar Britain”, Journal of Macromarketing, 31 (2011), 19–31.
“A technocratic imperial state? The Colonial Office and scientific research, 1940–1960”, Twentieth Century British History 18(4) (2007), 453–480.
“Pure science with a practical aim: the meanings of ‘fundamental research’ in Britain, c1916–1950,” Isis 101 (2010), 285–311.
“The research council system and the politics of medical and agricultural research in the Colonial Empire, 1940–1952”, Medical History 57 (2013), 338–358.
The Making of British Colonial Development Policy (London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1984).
Buy and Build: The Advertising Posters of the Empire Marketing Board (London: HMSO, 1986).
International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997).
“Foreword”, Industrial Development in the Caribbean (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Caribbean Commission Central Secretariat, Kent House, 1951).
“The British sugar duties and West Indian prosperity”, The Journal of Economic History 14 (1954), 157–164.
“The rise of protection in England, 1689–1786”, The Economic History Review 19 (1966), 306–317.
The History of Sugar, Vol. II (London: Chapman & Hall, 1950).
“Pure science and practical interests: the origins of the Agricultural Research Council, 1930–1937”, Minerva 31 (1993), 129–140.
Scaling Up: The Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Rise of a New Profession (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).
Nature’s Government: Science, Imperial Britain and the “Improvement” of the World (London: Yale University Press, 2000).
Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Britain’s War Machine: Weapons, Resources and Experts in the Second World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Improvising Planned Development on the Gezira Plain, 1900–1980 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).
“The commercial empire of the Atlantic, 1607–1783”, The Economic History Review 15 (1962), 205–218.
“Arthur Lewis and the case for Caribbean industrialisation”, Social and Economic Studies 29(4), 52–75.
The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development”, “Depoliticization” and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
“The academic economist as public teacher: lessons from W. Arthur Lewis and the Caribbean Policy Discourse”, Social and Economic Studies 58 (2009), 1–28.
Ambivalent Anti-Colonialism: The United States and the Genesis of West Indian Independence, 1940–1964 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994).
“Colonial policy towards women after the 1938 uprising; the case of Jamaica”, Caribbean Quarterly 34 (1988), 38–61.
“Botany in the service of empire: the Barbados cane-breeding program and the revival of the Caribbean sugar industry, 1880s-1930s”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86 (1996), 682–706.
Colonial Issues in British Politics, 1945–1961 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971).
“Society and economy in the British Caribbean during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries”, The American Historical Review 79 (1974), 1499–1517.
“Lewis and Caribbean industrialization: policy, theory and the new technology”, The Journal of Developing Areas 25 (1991), 207–230.
Scientists in Whitehall (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980).
The Chemical Industry, 1900–1930: International Growth and Technological Change (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).
An African Survey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1938).
“Making leeway in the Leewards, 1929–51: the negotiation of colonial development”, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 33 (2005), 393–418.
“From miser to spendthrift: public housing and the vulnerability of colonialism in Barbados, 1935–1965”, Journal of Urban History 33 (2007), 443–466.
Jamaica, the Caribbean and the World Sugar Industry (New York: New York University Press, 2001).
“Development of the fermentation industries in Great Britain”, Advances in Applied Microbiology 14 (1971), 1–45.
Colonialism and Development: Britain and Its Tropical Colonies, 1850–1960 (London and New York: Routledge, 1993).
Entangled Geographies: Empire and Technopolitics in the Global Cold War (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2011).
“Turning water into power: debates over the development of Tanzania’s Rufiji River Basin, 1945–1985”, Technology and Culture 49 (2008), 624–651.
“Science, development and empire: the Colonial Advisory Council on Agriculture and Animal Health”, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 30 (2002), 1–26.
Triumph of the Expert: Agrarian Doctrines of Development and the Legacies of British Colonialism (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2007).
Developing Africa: Concepts and Practices in Twentieth-Century Colonialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014).
Lords of the Fly: Sleeping Sickness Control in British East Africa, 1900–1960 (Westport: Praeger, 2003).
“Industrial chemistry and its changing patrons at the University of Liverpool, 1926–1951”, Technology and Culture 48 (2007), 43–66.
“War of words: the public science of the British scientific community and the origins of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1914–16”, British Journal for the History of Science 32 (1999), 461–481.
The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951 (London: HMSO, 1992).
“Shaping opinion on development policy: economists at the Colonial Office during World War II”, History of Political Economy 24 (1992), 689–710.
States of Development: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order (London: Routledge, 2004).
A Review of Colonial Research, 1940–1960 (London: HMSO, 1964).
“The West Indies and the conversion of the British official classes to the development idea”, The Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 15 (1977), 55–83.
“A ‘Textbook Pattern’? Malaria control and eradication in Jamaica, 1910–1965”, Medical History 57(3) (2013), 397–419.
Science and Power in Colonial Mauritius (Rochester: Rochester University Press, 1997).
The Politics of Labour and Development in Trinidad (Kingston: The University of the West Indies Press, 1996).
Industrialisation and Development: A Comparative Analysis (London: UCL Press, 1998).
Science and Policy: The International Stimulus (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).
“Plantation science: improving natural indigo in Colonial India, 1860–1913”, British Journal for the History of Science 40 (2007), 532–553.
“‘The examination of everything’: Royal Commissions in British legal history”, Statute Law Review 31 (2010), 24–46.
The Colonial Office, War and Development Policy: Organisation and the Planning of a Metropolitan Initiative, 1939–1945 (London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1982).
Imperialism and the Natural World (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990).
Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto Rico’s Operation Bootstrap (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997).
A History of the Colonial Agricultural Service (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972).
“Experts and expertise in Colonial Malawi”, African Affairs 81 (1982), 101–116.
Politics in a Half-Made Society: Trinidad and Tobago 1925–2001 (Kingston: Ian Randle, 2003).
A History of the United Molasses Company Ltd (Liverpool: Seel House Press, 1977).
The Official History of Colonial Development (London: Macmillan, 1980).
Slavery, Atlantic Trade and the British Economy, 1660–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
The American Synthetic Rubber Research Programme (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989).
Networks in Tropical Medicine: Internationalism, Colonialism and the Rise of a Medical Specialty, 1890–1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012).
“Trade and technology in West Africa: the case of the Niger Company, 1900–1920”, The Journal of African History 19 (1978), 551–575.
Black Intellectuals Come to Power: The Rise of Creole Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing, 1968).
The Caribbean Economy: A Reader (Jamaica: Ian Randle, 2005).
Development Strategies as Ideology: Puerto Rico’s Export-Led Industrialisation Experience (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990).
“‘Capital of the Caribbean’: the African American–West Indian ‘Harlem Nexus’ and the Transnational Drive for Black Freedom, 1940–1948”, The Journal of African American History 89 (2004), 98–117.
Brother’s Keeper: The United States, Race and Empire in the British Caribbean, 1937–1962 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
, By-Products of the Cane Sugar Industry (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989).
Charting Caribbean Development (London: Macmillan Caribbean, 2001).
The Turning Point in Africa: British Colonial Policy, 1938–1948 (London: Frank Cass, 1982).
“Sir Sydney Caine and the Colonial Office in the Second World War: a career in the making”, Canadian Journal of History 16 (1981), 68–85.
The Government of Science in Britain (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972).
“Making British cortisone: Glaxo and the development of corticosteroids in Britain in the 1950s-1960s”, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2005), 645–674.
Imperial Chemical Industries: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970), pp. 322–323.
“Science in the service of politics: the case of Chaim Weizmann during the First World War”, The English Historical Review 100 (1985), 572–603.
“British contributions to medical research and education in Africa after the Second World War”, Wellcome Witnesses to the Twentieth Century 10 (2001).
“Depression riots and the calling of the 1897 West India Royal Commission”, New West Indian Guide 66 (1992), 169–191.
“British chemists abroad, 1887–1971: the dynamics of chemists’ careers”, Annals of Science 66 (2009), 103–128.
Imperialism at Bay, 1941–1945: The United States and the Decolonisation of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977).
“Cracks in the post-war Keynesian settlement? The role of organized business in Britain in the rise of neoliberalism before Margaret Thatcher”, Twentieth Century British History 24 (2013), 637–659.
Science and Society (London: Penguin, 1969).
Hankey: Man of Secrets (London: HarperCollins, 1974).
The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith (New York: Zed Books, 1999).
Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Decolonization in a Multi-Racial Society (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972).
“The economic significance of ‘constructive imperialism’”, The Journal of Economic History 17 (1957), 173–192.
Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (Yale: Yale University Press, 1998).
“The Molasses Act and the market strategy of the British sugar planters”, The Journal of Economic History 17 (1957), 69–72.
“Soil erosion in the Kingdom of Lesotho: origins and colonial response, 1830s–1950s”, Journal of Southern African Studies 15 (1989), 263–286.
Glaxo: A History to 1962 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
“Merchants and planters revisited”, The Economic History Review 55 (2002), 434–465.
The Birth of Development: How the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization Changed the World, 1945–1965 (Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2006).
Trade Investment and Development in the Contemporary Caribbean (Kingston: Ian Randle, 2007).
Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870–1950 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011).
Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical Industry, 1900–193 (Dordrecht: Springer, 1998).
Higher Education in Asia: Expanding Out, Expanding Up. The Rise of Graduate Education and University Research (Montreal, Canada: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014).
“Co-operative research associations in British industry, 1918–1934”, Minerva 19 (1981), 433–463.
“Microbes at work: micro-organisms, the DSIR and industry in Britain, 1900–1936”, Annals of Science 51 (1994), 593–613.
Science and Technology in British Politics (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968).
“The profitability of sugar planting in the British West Indies, 1650–1834”, Economic History Review 31 (1978), 197–213.
The History of the Distillers Company: Diversification and Growth in Whiskey and Chemicals (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).
Bitter Rehearsal: British and American Planning for a Post-War West Indies (Westport: Praeger, 2002).
British Science and Politics Since 1945 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991).
“Colonial policy and economic development in the British West Indies, 1895–1903” The Economic History Review 23 (1970), 129–147.
Science in Africa: A Review of Scientific Research Relating to Tropical and Southern Africa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1938).
“Science and British Colonial Imperialism, 1895–1940” (DPhil, University of Sussex, 1979).
“The Imperial Institute: the state and the development of the natural resources of the colonial empire, 1887–1923”, in J. M. Mackenzie (ed.), Imperialism and the Natural World (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), pp. 164–186.
Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls and Consumption 1939–1955 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).