In the theorization and general discussion of democratization, South Asia occupies a distinctive space. Directly or indirectly, democratization has been central to the study of South Asian politics over the past few years. Coinciding with the 'third wave', it reflects seismic changes within the governance of South Asian states. These changes embrace some of the followings: the collapse of dominant party systems; the transition from military or monarchical regimes; and domestic demands for political reform. Political consolidation and the effectiveness of the democratic process are likely to remain the key area of research. The impact of international developments is a recurrent theme in the literature on democratization in South Asia. The chapter reviews constraints on the democratization in South Asia. The development of new communications technologies eroded the strict control on political communications that had been a characteristic feature of South Asian states.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.