INDEX

Abdurahman, Dr Abdullah 165
Aborigines, Australian 18, 33, 6370, 71, 72, 835, 186, 187
Aborigines Department 151
Aborigines’ Protection Society (APS) 27, 43, 47, 58, 66, 68, 72, 74, 84, 113, 129
see also Anti-Slavery Society
Acadians 20
Acts
Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act (1897) 138
Act for the Better Protection of the Lands and Property of the Indians in Lower Canada (1857) see Gradual Civilisation Act
Act for the Better Government of Her Majesty’s Australian Colonies (1850) 66, 69
Act to Make Provision for the Better Protection and Care of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Western Australia (1905) 151
Act for the Protection of Indians in Upper Canada from Imposition, and the Property Occupied or Enjoyed by them from Trespass and Injury see Gradual Civilisation Act
Act for Regulating the Sale of Wasteland (1842) 66
Canadian Citizenship Act (1946) 190
Commonwealth Franchise Act (1902, Australia) 149, 188, 189
Constitution Act (1852, New Zealand) 77, 136, 137
Constitution Amendment Act (1893, Western Australia) 139
Constitution Amendment Act (1899, Western Australia) 142
Crown Lands Protection Act (1839) 49
First Reform Act (1832) 34
Franchise Act (1885, Canada) 11530
Franchise Act (1896, Natal) 171, 172
Franchise Act Amendment (British Columbia) 55
Franchise and Ballot Act (1892, Cape) 163, 171
Glen Grey Act (1894, Cape Colony) 164, 185
Gradual Civilisation Act (1857, Canada) 51, 52, 104, 115, 117, 119, 125, 126, 129, 189
Gradual Enfranchisement Act (1869, Canada) 189
Immigration Restriction Act (1897, Natal) 170
Immigration Restriction Act (1902, Australia) 150
Indian Act (1876, Canada) 51, 122, 190
Maori Provinces Bill (1865) 80
Maori Representation Bill (1867) 80, 81
Masters and Servants Ordinance (1841, Cape) 96
Natives’ Land Act (1913) 184
New Zealand Constitution Act (1852) 75, 77
New Zealand Royal Commission on Federation 150
Ordinance 3, Cape Colony 103
Ordinance 49, Cape Colony 94
Ordinance 50, Cape Colony 946
Parliamentary Voters’ Registration Act (1887) 162
Queensland Electoral Act (1885) 137
Reform Act (1832, Britain) 6, 91
Adams College 105
Adamson, Dr Joseph 50
Adelaide Convention (1897) 145
African National Congress (ANC) 182, 191
Afrikaner Bond 1625
passim, 179n
African Political Organisation (APO) 165, 175
Afrikaners 22, 89, 90, 98, 100, 101, 158
Alberta 113
Algoma region, Canada 52, 53, 120, 122
American colonies 10
Anglo-Boer War 158, 160
Anti-Slavery Society (including Anti-Slavery and Aborigines Protection Society) 18, 19, 27, 34
see also Aborigines Protection Society
apartheid 186, 192
Arthur, Sir George 49
Asquith, H. H. 17, 18, 178
Australian colonies 28, 6370, 835, 134, 143, 170
Australian Labor Party (ALP) 17
‘Bambatha Rebellion’ 175
Banks, Sir Joseph 24
Barton, Edward 150
Basotho revolt 151
Basutoland 158, 175
Bechuanaland (Botswana) 160, 175
Beothuk people 20
Blackwood, William 56, 58
Blake, Edward 119
Bloemfontein Convention (1852 and 1854) 90, 176
Boer (Afrikaner) republics 90, 100, 157, 158, 165, 172, 173
Boers 100
Botha, General Louis 18, 19, 174, 191
Bourke, Acting-Governor Richard 94
Brant, John 44, 59n
British Columbia 44, 48, 53, 54, 55, 58, 114, 115, 129, 182, 186, 188, 190
‘British Kaffraria’ 88
see also Ciskei
British North America 43
Browne, Governor Thomas Gore 77, 78, 79
Buck, Peter 153
Buller, Charles 35
Busby, James 25
‘Bushmen’ see San people
Buxton, Sir Thomas Foxwell 27
‘Caffres’ 28
see also Xhosa people
Camfield, Anne 83
Canadian colonies 10, 65, 76, 90, 113
Canadian Pacific Railway 113, 116
Canadian Women’s Suffrage Association 115
Cape Colony 11, 24, 28, 75, 79, 85, 88, 89, 901, 101, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 165, 168, 171, 172, 174, 176, 185, 187, 191, 192
‘Cape Coloured people’ 89, 94
‘Cape liberalism’ 93, 94, 192
Cape Provincial Council 165
Cape Town 89, 92, 165
Carnarvon, Fourth Earl of 158
Carnarvon’s federation scheme 157, 158
Caron, Sir Adolph 128
Carroll, James 153
Cartwright, Sir Richard 116, 124
Casey, George 122
Casgrain, Phillipe 122
Cetshwayo 102, 182
Chamberlain, Colonial Secretary Joseph 169, 170, 173
Charlton, John 118, 120, 127, 128
Church Missionary Society 25
see also missions and missionaries
Ciskei 88, 98, 161
citizenship 34, 83, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 128, 130, 143, 169, 190, 191
‘Clapham Sect’ 28
Colonial Conference (1897) 170
colour bar 183, 186
see also franchise, racial disqualifications to
Commission of Inquiry into Indian Affairs 50, 51
Commissioner for Crown Lands 56
Confederation of Canada 47, 51, 53, 55, 58, 113
constitution – general 8, 134, 135, 143
American 24
Australian 68, 144, 145, 149, 191
Cape 92, 97, 98
Natalia (Boer Republic of) 90, 100
New South Wales 70
New Zealand 76
Queensland 84
South Africa 175, 177, 186
Transvaal 91
Western Australia 85
Cook, Captain James 24, 71
Cornwallis, Colonel Edward 20
Council on Aboriginal Reconciliation, Australia (1991–2001) 183
Crewe, Lord 178
Dawson, Simon 120, 121
De Beers company 162
de Cosmos, Amor 54
diamond fields 157, 158
Dieffenbach, Ernest 71, 72
Dingane 90, 99
disfranchisement 55, 80, 122, 128, 137, 183
dispossession 1, 4, 11
Douglas, Sir James 54
Durban 99, 174
D’Urban, Governor Sir Benjamin 31
Durham, First Earl of (J. G. Lambton) 34, 49, 76
‘Durham Report’ 8, 27, 34, 36, 37, 90, 92
Dutch East India Company (VOC) 21
Dutch settlers 88, 89, 163
‘Eastern Frontier’, Cape Colony 23, 94, 99
education 83, 95, 97, 135, 152, 165, 177, 184, 188
Edward VII, King 17
Elliot, Colonial Under-Secretary Thomas Frederick 57, 58
Ellis, Reverend William 30
enfranchisement 5, 6, 59, 115, 119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 166, 186
evangelicals 2737, 44, 152, 185, 188
see also under organisation names
Featherstone, Superintendent Isaac 77
federation of
Australia 143, 144, 145, 150, 170, 174, 175, 184
Canada 174
South Africa 158, 177
First Nations peoples 21, 130
Fisher, Andrew 17, 18
Fisher, Sidney 120
FitzGerald, James 79, 80
FitzRoy, Governor Sir Charles 69
Flood, Rev. R. 50
Flower, Bessy 83
Forrest, Sir John 142
Fox, William 75
franchise
female 6, 12n, 23, 25, 87n, 138, 171, 180n, 188
literacy test for 75, 163, 164, 189
property qualifications to 53, 59, 68, 80, 93, 98, 104, 114, 115, 122, 125, 129, 1379
passim, 152, 160, 1624
passim, 168, 185, 186, 187
racial disqualification clauses to (colour bars) 54, 55, 58, 147, 186
see also suffrage
Franchise Law Amendment Bill 167
Frere, Sir Bartle 160
frontier wars, southern Africa 88, 92, 96, 97, 159
George V, King 17
Gilkison, Jasper 125
Gillmor, Arthur 122
Girouard, Désiré 117
Glen Grey Reserve 164
Glenelg, Lord Charles Grant 28, 31
Globe, Toronto 118, 121, 123, 124, 126
gold mines 157, 160, 164
governors of
Australia 64, 65, 66, 138
Canada 45, 46, 58, 59
Cape 88, 98, 164, 172
Natal 105, 166, 170, 175
New Zealand 135, 136
Western Australia 151
Grant, Charles see Glenelg
Grey, Earl 36, 56, 68, 69, 73, 74, 134
Grey, Sir (formerly Captain) George 28, 74, 75, 79, 98, 136
Griqua peoples 89, 158
Griqualand East and West, 158, 159, 163
Hall, Sir John 136, 143
Hawke’s Bay district 137
Head, Edward 56
Henare Tomoana 1367
Hertzog, General J. B. M. 174, 191
Het Volk Party 174
Heyd, Charles 128
Higgins, Henry Bourne 148
Hobson, Lieutenant Governor William 71
Hofmeyr, Jan, 162, 163
Hone Heke 137
Hone Mohi Tawhai 136
‘Hottentots’ 22, 28, 30, 88, 95, 123, 187
Hudson’s Bay Company 21, 44, 53, 59
Hudson’s Bay territories 113
humanitarians 3, 7, 8, 2737, 44, 64, 44, 74, 84, 95, 97, 98, 135, 151, 185, 188
see also missions and missionaries
immigrants
Chinese 121
Indian 102, 167, 170
non-European 18, 55
immigration 115, 138, 170
Imperial Conference (1911) 18, 190
Inanda Seminary 105
‘Indian’ 72, 101, 102, 117, 118, 120
see also indigenous peoples, Canada
Indian Department 44, 48, 50, 56, 57, 59, 113, 117, 125, 127
Inter-Colonial Commission (1903–5) 106
Indigenes see indigenous peoples
indigenous peoples
Australian colonies 245, 6370, 835
New South Wales 6570
Port Phillip District (Victoria) 64, 65
Queensland 64, 70
South Australia 64, 70
Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) 64
see also Aborigines, Australian
Canadian colonies 202, 11333
British Columbia 535, 58
Lower Canada 48
Manitoba 53
Ontario 53
Prince Edward Island 58
Province of Canada 48, 51
Vancouver Island 53
New Zealand 256, 7184, 1347
southern African colonies 18, 224, 88109
Cape Colony 8890, 939
Natal 99107
Inuit peoples 182
Iroquois 45, 125
Jabavu, John Tengo 1613, 165
James, Lieutenant Colonel 45, 60n
Jameson Raid, Cape Colony 164
Jarvis, Chief Superintendent Samuel 50
Johannesburg 157
Jones, Reverend Peter 52, 120
Kahkewaquonby 52, 120
Kat River rebellion 967
Kat River Settlement 30, 95, 96, 97, 97, 108, 187
Keate, Lieutenant-Governor R. W. 158
Kenyatta, Jomo 182
Khama, Tswana chief 182
Khoikhoi people 22, 28
Kholwa 105, 106
Khosian peoples 22, 30, 82, 89, 94, 95, 96
Kimberley, South Africa 157, 158, 161, 162, 165, 172
Kotahitanga 141
labour 19, 94, 95, 103, 172, 184, 185, 188
labourers 106, 120
indentured 102, 167
Ladies’ Social Purity Society 141
Laurier, Prime Minister Wilfred 17, 128
Lesotho 158, 175
Liberal Party, Canada 119, 128
liberalism 4, 7, 95, 140
see also ‘Cape liberalism’
literacy 97
see also franchise, literacy test
London Convention (1884) 158
London Missionary Society, 25, 30, 948 passim see also missions and missionaries
Lovedale school 99
Lower Canada 20, 26, 34, 35, 44, 48, 60n
Lucas, Sir Charles 177
Mabo judgment 11, 182
Macauley judgement 50
McCraney, William 123
Macdonald, Sir John 11527
passim, 130, 186, 189
McLean, Donald 802 passim
Macmillan, W. M. 96, 107n
Mandela, Nelson 182
Mangakahia, Meri 141
Manitoba 14, 21, 53, 121, 123, 188, 190
Maori King Movement 78, 80
Maori peoples 25, 63, 7184, 124, 1346, 149, 152, 162, 163
Marais, J. S. 97, 107n
Marsden, Reverend Samuel 25
Mason, Reverend Frederick 175
Matheson, Senator Alexander 1469 passim
Merivale, Herman 1, 7, 11, 57
Merriman, John X. 171, 1757
passim, 181n
Metcalfe, Sir Charles 49
Mfengu people 89, 99, 161, 162
Mi’kmaq 47, 48
Mill, J. S. 4
Mills, David 59, 118
Milner, Sir Alfred 1724
‘mineral revolution’, South Africa 1578
miscegenation 6
missionary schools 105, 106
missions and missionaries 3, 8, 9, 21, 30, 46, 47, 65, 74, 83, 957, 103, 105, 107n, 138, 188
American Board 105
Catholic 21, 47
Church of England 71
Marist fathers 71
Wesleyan 21, 25, 47, 50, 52, 71
see also Church Missionary Society; London Missionary Society
Mississauga of the River Credit 50, 52
Mohawks 31
Montague, Colonial Secretary John 92, 93
Morris, Sir Edward 17
Mpondo people 23
Murray, Sir George 46, 48, 59n, 60n
Murray, John 43
Natal 85, 90, 1007, 150, 157, 188, 189
Natal Select Committee (1862) 104
Natalia, Boer Republic of 91, 99
National Convention 1908–9, South Africa 1757 passim
Native Department, New Zealand 76
Native Districts, New Zealand 75
Native Land Court 82
Native Law 1035
passim, 166, 167, 189
Ndebele people 89
New Brunswick 21, 26, 36, 44, 49, 58, 60n, 123, 129, 190
New France see Quebec
New South Wales (NSW) 25, 26, 6370
passim, 147, 149
New Westminster 55
New Zealand 1, 2, 17, 18, 19, 24, 25, 28, 31, 34, 54, 134, 140, 141, 149, 153, 162, 163, 165, 171, 18292 passim
New Zealand Company 72
Newfoundland 18, 21
Ngata, Apirana 153
Nguni societies 99, 105
Nicholls, Elizabeth 142
North Island, New Zealand 71, 75, 79, 81, 144
Northern Territory, Australia 147
Nova Scotia 20, 21, 35, 44, 47, 49, 51, 58, 129
Nunavut 182
O’Connor, Richard 148, 149
Ontario 53, 58, 114, 117, 123, 125, 129, 190
Orange Free State, Boer Republic 90, 100, 158, 165, 172
Orange River 86, 173
Orange River Colony (ORC) 173, 174, 178
Orangia Unie Party 174
Oronhyatekha, Dr 120, 124, 125
Outline of a System of Legislation for Securing Protection of all Countries Colonized by Great Britain 43
Owen, Assistant Commissioner C. M. 101, 102
Parkes, Sir Henry 143, 144
parliaments
Australian 65, 69, 69, 83, 84, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 147, 151, 153
British 11, 26, 31, 34, 72, 92, 94, 162, 175, 177, 189
Canada 34, 44, 50, 58, 113, 118, 129
Cape 99
New Zealand 73, 75, 76, 79, 135
Queensland 137, 138
South African 92, 96, 98, 103, 106, 107, 108n, 166, 169
pastoralism 102
Paterson, William 121, 125, 127
Pedi people and polity 89, 158
Peel, William 75
petitions 9, 108n, 127, 169
Philip, Dr John 31, 94, 95, 96
Plaatje, Sol 165, 172, 180n, 191
Platt, John 122, 123
Playford, Senator Thomas 149
Pondoland 89, 159
Port Natal 99
Port Phillip District 25, 28, 31, 64
Porter, Attorney-General William 92, 98
Potatau I, King 78
Pretoria Convention (1881) 158
prime ministers
see also under individual names 17, 18, 190
Prince, Colonel John 50
Prince Edward Island 26, 36, 44, 49, 58, 122, 129, 190
Progressive Party, South Africa 164, 165
property 3, 4, 5, 30, 63, 75, 88, 95, 98, 114, 115, 119, 138, 160, 165, 185
holders 73, 74, 136, 142, 152
laws 30, 95, 185
taxes 50
Protectors of Aborigines 31, 65
Protestant work ethic 95
Province of Canada 44, 48, 49, 51
Quebec 20, 58, 115, 117, 122, 129, 190
Queensland 64, 67, 70, 84, 137, 138, 147, 148, 183, 187
Queenstown, South Africa 163
railways 174
Red River 21
see also Manitoba
Reform Party (Canada) 53
Report on the Select Affairs of British North America (1839) 27
see also Durham Report
Report of the Select Committee on Aborigines (1837) see Select Committee on Aborigines
representative government 8, 65, 90, 93, 101, 102, 103, 106, 138, 161, 166, 167, 185
responsible government 8, 76, 91, 92, 106, 137, 138, 160, 163, 167
Rhodes, Cecil 1615
passim, 168, 174, 185
Rinfret, Côme 122
Ripon, Second Earl of, Colonial Secretary 164
Robinson, Prime Minister John 167, 168
Robinson, W. B. 52
Ross, G. W. 127
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1997, Canada) 183
Royal Proclamation (1763) 21
rununga 79
Russell, Lord John 44, 72, 96, 114
Russell, Captain William 184
San people 22, 23
Sand River 90
Saskatchewan 113, 129, 190
Sauer, Jacobus 163
Schreiner, Olive, 171
Schreiner, W. P. 177
Select Committee on Aborigines (1837, Britain) 63, 72, 95
settler colonialism 2, 7
Seven Years War 20
Shaka 99
Shepstone, Theophilus 101, 103, 104, 158
‘Shepstone System’ 103, 104
Siege of Mafeking 172
Six Nations’ peoples 31, 48, 52, 1258
Six Nations’ Reserve 121, 127, 128, 130
slavery 46, 89, 92, 94, 95
Smuts, General Jan 174, 175, 181n, 191
Somerville, James 120
Sotho peoples 90, 187
South African Convention 174
South African National Congress (SANC) 165, 173, 174
South African War 90, 165, 180n, 186
South Australia 25, 28, 31, 64, 67, 69, 70, 83, 140, 141, 143, 147, 149
South Island, New Zealand 71
South Sea Islanders 151
southern Africa 10, 19, 21, 85
Sprigg, Gordon 161, 162, 179n
Stanley, Lord Edward (subsequently Fourteenth Earl of Derby) 49, 57, 100
Stephen, Sir James 28, 71
Steyn, M. T. 174
Stirling, Dr Edward 141
Stockenstrom, Lieutenant-Governor Andries 30, 95
suffrage 6, 140, 171
activists 152
campaign 140
female see women’s
manhood 63, 69, 70, 98, 114, 135, 136, 139, 140, 141, 187, 188
universal white 116
women’s 115, 122, 138, 141, 149, 171, 180n, 188
Swaziland 175
Sydenham, Lord (Charles Poulett Thomson) 43, 44, 55, 59n
Taiaroa, Hori Kerei 137
Taranaki, New Zealand 79
tariffs 174
Tasmania 24, 64, 67, 69
see also Van Diemen’s Land
Tawhiao, King 136
Te Whero, Wi 136
Te Wherowhero 78
Tembuland 159
terra nullius 4, 88, 182, 184
The Times (British) 18
Torres Strait Islands 137
Transkei 88, 98, 159, 161, 162, 163
Transvaal, Boer Republic of 90, 100, 157, 158, 160, 172, 173, 174, 178
Treaty of Paris 20
Treaty of Utrecht 20
Treaty of Versailles 21
Treaty of Waitangi 71, 136, 137, 182
trekboers 22, 23
Truce of Amiens 24
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (1995–98) 183
Tswana peoples 89, 90, 160
Tugela River 99, 102
Union of South Africa 18, 91, 102, 165, 171, 175, 177, 178, 191
United States of America 20, 46, 47, 48, 168
Universal Races Congress 19
Upper Canada 21, 26, 34, 35, 44
see also Ontario
Vagrancy law, Cape Colony 96
Van Diemen’s Land 24, 28, 64, 67, 69
Vancouver Island 44, 53, 54
Victoria, Australia 25, 64, 67, 69, 70, 149
Victoria, Queen 17, 182
VOC see Dutch East India Company
Voortrekkers 90, 99
Wahawaha, Major Rapata 140, 141
Waikato Confederation of Tribes 136
Waitangi Tribunal 182
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon 26, 35, 76
Walker, Thomas 151
Ward, Sir Joseph 17
Waterboer, Nicholas 158
Watson, John 147
Watson, Robert 121, 123
Western Australia 83, 85, 137, 138, 140, 141, 142, 147, 148, 151, 152, 183, 187
White Australia policy 148, 170
see also Acts, Immigration Restriction Act (1902, Australia)
Wilberforce, William 27
Witwatersrand (‘the Rand’), South Africa 157
women 6, 12n, 23, 25, 87n, 171, 180n, 188
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) 140, 142, 152
wool industry 97
Wynyard, Governor Robert 75
Xhosa peoples 23, 28, 30, 31, 88, 89, 90, 96, 97, 98, 187
‘Young Maori Party’ 153, 165, 189
Zulu people 99, 101, 102, 107, 187

Equal subjects, unequal rights

Indigenous people in British settler colonies, 1830s–1910

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