At McGill University, it was my PhD supervisor Audrey
Kobayashi, a past IODE War Memorial Scholar herself, who wrote ‘What
about the IODE?’ in the margin of an early thesis proposal. Thus began
the study that has eventually led to this book. Together with my thanks to
Audrey, I wish to express my gratitude to the rest of my PhD committee, the
late Theo Hills, Andrée Lévesque and Sherry Olson, and to Barbara
Welch who put me in touch with two of the party of girls who formed the 1928
English Schoolgirl Tour of Canada.
More recently, valuable guidance and encouragement have
been offered by my colleagues in New Zealand: at the University of
Canterbury, Garth Cant, Graeme Dunstall, Miles Fairburn, David McIntyre,
Philippa Mein Smith, Ann Parsonson and Luke Trainor; at the University of
Otago, Barbara Brookes, Melissa Kerdemelidis and Dot Page; at the University
of Auckland, Don Kerr and Wendy Larner; and from afar and during visits to
Vancouver, Myra Rutherdale of the University of British Columbia.
I owe an enormous thanks to my family and friends, and to
everyone who has supported and helped me along the way. For their assistance
with records, I am grateful to numerous archivists across Canada, and at the
Royal Commonwealth Society Library and the Imperial War Museum, London, UK.
Tim Nolan and Pauline Wedlake at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand,
provided technical assistance. The contributions of the series’ editor
John MacKenzie, the anonymous readers and the staff at Manchester University
Press are greatly appreciated.
A version of part of chapter eight
originally appeared as ‘Forgotten colonizers: the Imperial Order
Daughters of the Empire (IODE) and the Canadian north’, The
Canadian Geographer, 42: 2 (1998), 193–204, as also has a
version of part of chapter four, which appeared as
‘Exhibiting Canada: Empire, migration and the 1928 English Schoolgirl
Tour of Canada’, Gender, Place and Culture, 7:1 (2000),
Without the support and assistance of members of the IODE
across Canada, and of the two women from the 1928 English Schoolgirl Tour,
this would be a very different book. I have appreciated their sharing of
memories and opinions with such wisdom, honesty, warmth and hospitality.
Meeting with them has been an experience that I shall treasure always.
The Washington summit was useful to Lyndon B. Johnson mainly because it allowed him to impress upon the British the need for them to retain their traditional 'great power' role and also to allow him to bring the multilateral force (MLF) to a conclusion. Harold Wilson accepted the American view that Britain should preserve its current position in defence, telling the Cabinet on 11 December that 'the most encouraging fact about the conference was America's emphasis on Britain's world wide role'. Johnson not only wanted Wilson to maintain Britain's defence commitments, but to extend them into South Vietnam. After Wilson's visit to Washington, most observers, including the President, anticipated that he would face a serious challenge in explaining what he had agreed to in Washington to the House of Commons in the foreign affairs debate scheduled for 16-17 December.
From January to April 1965 the character of the Harold Wilson-Lyndon B. Johnson relationship traversed the spectrum from discord to cordiality. Discord erupted over the Vietnam War when Wilson telephoned Washington in the early hours of 11 February to suggest to Johnson an urgent visit to the White House. Wilson agreed to the US initiative, even though the visit might have caused a political storm in Britain had it become public knowledge - it would appear that the United States was dictating British economic measures. Wilson noted that unlike the December summit and the telephone conversation in February, Johnson did not make 'any suggestion of our committing troops to Vietnam nor even any reference to police, medical teams, or teams to handle the flow of refugees'. On 10 April, Patrick Dean advised that to help strengthen the Anglo-American relationship, Britain should provide more support for the United States in Vietnam.