At McGill University, it was my PhD supervisor Audrey
Kobayashi, a past IODE War Memorial Scholar herself, who wrote ‘What
about the IODE?’ in the margin of an early thesis proposal. Thus began
the study that has eventually led to this book. Together with my thanks to
Audrey, I wish to express my gratitude to the rest of my PhD committee, the
late Theo Hills, Andrée Lévesque and Sherry Olson, and to Barbara
Welch who put me in touch with two of the party of girls who formed the 1928
English Schoolgirl Tour of Canada.
More recently, valuable guidance and encouragement have
been offered by my colleagues in New Zealand: at the University of
Canterbury, Garth Cant, Graeme Dunstall, Miles Fairburn, David McIntyre,
Philippa Mein Smith, Ann Parsonson and Luke Trainor; at the University of
Otago, Barbara Brookes, Melissa Kerdemelidis and Dot Page; at the University
of Auckland, Don Kerr and Wendy Larner; and from afar and during visits to
Vancouver, Myra Rutherdale of the University of British Columbia.
I owe an enormous thanks to my family and friends, and to
everyone who has supported and helped me along the way. For their assistance
with records, I am grateful to numerous archivists across Canada, and at the
Royal Commonwealth Society Library and the Imperial War Museum, London, UK.
Tim Nolan and Pauline Wedlake at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand,
provided technical assistance. The contributions of the series’ editor
John MacKenzie, the anonymous readers and the staff at Manchester University
Press are greatly appreciated.
A version of part of chapter eight
originally appeared as ‘Forgotten colonizers: the Imperial Order
Daughters of the Empire (IODE) and the Canadian north’, The
Canadian Geographer, 42: 2 (1998), 193–204, as also has a
version of part of chapter four, which appeared as
‘Exhibiting Canada: Empire, migration and the 1928 English Schoolgirl
Tour of Canada’, Gender, Place and Culture, 7:1 (2000),
Without the support and assistance of members of the IODE
across Canada, and of the two women from the 1928 English Schoolgirl Tour,
this would be a very different book. I have appreciated their sharing of
memories and opinions with such wisdom, honesty, warmth and hospitality.
Meeting with them has been an experience that I shall treasure always.
This chapter auto-critiques the editors early work (Crozier, Practising Colonial Medicine, 2007) for studying the Colonial Medical Service as a distinct entity, founded and run on shared principles, staffed by Europeans and micro-managed from Whitehall. The collection of chapters is introduced, particularly emphasising how each essay originally contributes to revising this flawed interpretation. The Colonial Medical Service is argued as being flexibly responsive to local demands, open to negotiation and cooperation with non-governmental partners, and very much different in reality to the unified image that is often assumed. Theoretically this dramatically pushes forward understandings of the history of government medicine in Africa, not least showing scholars that history is always on the move and can be rarely compartmentalised, despite the active public relations agenda of the British colonial government.