Index
in The international politics of the Middle East

Index

Abdullah, Crown Prince (Saudi) 129
Abdullah I, King (of Jordan) 156–7
Afghanistan 183, 195, 234, 236
Alawis 56, 102–5, 128, 138
Albright, Madeleine 233
Arab Cold War 80, 162
Arab collective security 23, 64, 161, 201, 223
Arab–Israeli conflict 155–9, 222, 227, 238; see also wars
Arab League 158, 160, 176, 222
Arab nationalism 19–30, 58–69, 135–7, 149, 200–9
and outbidding 65–6, 169, 171, 176; see also Pan-Arabism
Arab summits 66, 176–9, 222, 228, 237
Arab Triangle 173–5, 177, 181
Arab world 19, 58–62, 158, 200–1
armaments
expenditure 182
races/build-ups 83–4, 129, 203
transfers 24, 29, 33, 42–3, 168, 175, 186, 232
Asad, Hafiz al- 104, 118–210, 126, 128, 130, 133–5, 138–41, 174, 182, 186
Ataturk, Mustafa Kamal 18, 105, 142
authoritarian republics 73, 79–80, 108, 142, 152
Azm, Sadiq al- 15
Baghdad Pact 22–4, 64, 80, 144, 161
balance of power (also balancing, power imbalances) 2, 3, 10–11, 23, 31, 64, 86, 151, 155, 160, 163, 181, 188, 200, 202–3, 212, 213, 222–3, 226–7, 232
Arab–Israeli 33, 171, 179, 183, 185, 220, 238
Balfour Declaration 155
bandwagoning4, 34, 132, 151
Barak, Ehud 227–9
Barnett, Michael 62–5, 226, 238
Ba’th party 103–4, 125–6, 128, 130, 138, 167, 177, 198, 207
Bazargan, Mehdi 193
Begin, Menachem 113, 118, 166, 169, 178, 183–4, 187
Ben Gurion, David 158, 165–6, 184
Bin Laden, Osama 236
bourgeoisie 83, 86, 96–9, 177, 189, 207, 231
comprador 97
infitah 11, 98, 140, 207
national 97
state 82–3, 86
Bromley, Simon 41
Brown, Leon Carl 14
Bull, Hedley 62
bureaucratic politics 94, 109–11
Bush, George, Sr 221
business and foreign policy 96–9
Buzan, Barry 15
cabinets 110–11
Camp David negotiations 117–18, 179, 184
Carter, Jimmy 117–18, 190
Christians 56
clash of civilizations 234, 237
Cold War 4, 21–35, 52, 185, 212
end of 4, 215, 218
constructivism 2, 10, 12, 62, 65–6
core–periphery relations 2, 3–4, 14–53
Cyprus conflict 144, 146, 152–3
David, Steven 8, 93
decision-making 8–9, 93–4, 21
Iraqi 219–20
Saudi 129–30
structures of 108–13
Syrian 130
US 220–1
defensive modernisation 17
democracies 76, 111, 147, 153; see also pluralist states
democratic peace theory 11, 141, 152–3, 204, 231
democratisation 11, 88–9, 96, 141–2, 152, 231
dependency 35–51, 89, 92, 140–1, 151, 212–13
development, regional 45–51
Dual Containment doctrine 232
Dulles, John Foster 24–7
economy, regional 45–51
capital flight from 48
crises 85–6
debt 47
dependency of 35–51, 140
liberalisation of 85–6, 230–1
Ottoman 16–17
structural adjustment in 48, 86, 88, 231
trade of 48
Egypt
foreign policy 134–41, 150–1, 174–5
identity 60–1, 135
1956 war 165
1967 war 30–2, 165–70
1973 war 33, 137–41, 174–6
and Pan-Arabism 22–8, 63–7, 160–2, 167–8
presidency 108–10
resources 160, 173–4, 182
second Gulf war, 213
separate peace with Israel 33–5, 178–80, 185, 202, 230
state formation 136–7, 160
and the West 22–35; see also Mubarak; Nasser; Sadat
Eisenhower Doctrine 25, 144
Erbakan, Necmettin 108, 143
Eshkol, Levi 166
Faisal, King (of Saudi Arabia), 125, 132
foreign ministries 112
foreign policy 6–9
comparative 121–53
determinants 8, 91–4
role 9, 93–4, 113
foreign policy making 91–120
Galtung, Johan 3
Gaza strip 165, 172, 228
geopolitics 83, 91–2, 94–5, 138–9, 143–4, 151, 163–5, 213
globalisation 85, 87–9, 204–5, 225, 229, 230, 239
Golan Heights 133–4, 136, 170, 171, 184, 227
Gorbachev, Mikhail 212, 218
Great Britain 14, 18, 19, 22–5, 37, 122, 206, 216
Guazzone, Laura 235
Gulf states 36, 41–52, 194–5, 196–7, 200, 209, 210, 217, 222
Halliday, Fred 14
HAMAS 69
Hashemites 26, 123, 159, 161
hegemony 11, 14–15
Egyptian 10, 65, 161–3, 173–4
US 4, 15, 37, 88, 205–6, 216–18, 231–7
Heikal, Muhammed Hassanein 31, 45
Hizbollah 69, 146, 180, 187, 195, 237
Hussein, King (of Jordan) 25, 95–6, 172, 180, 227, 231; see also Jordan
Hussein, Saddam 119–20, 196, 206–7, 210–12, 219–20, 233
Ibn Saud, Abd al-Aziz 122
identity 5–6, 17, 54–72, 74, 78, 81, 83, 92–3, 135–6, 142, 151
ideology 11, 20–1, 28, 55, 59, 63, 67–72, 81, 83, 174, 191–2, 200, 202, 208
idiosyncratic variable 112–20; see also leadership
IMF 47, 86, 231
imperialism 3, 5, 14–15, 15–20, 78, 89
infitah 45, 85–6; see also economy, liberalisation of
institutions 75, 77, 94, 112, 113
interdependence 11, 36, 45, 177, 204, 229, 230
internationalist coalitions 11, 86, 94, 98–9, 230
international system 14–53, 215
intifada 187, 224–5, 229
Iran
conflict with US 192–3
export of revolution69–70, 194–5
foreign policy 188–200
identity 55, 72
Iraq war 195–200
revolution 96, 154, 181, 183, 188–201
state formation 149–50, 187, 198; see also Khomeini; Mossadeq; Shah
Iraq
coalition against 212–13
decision-making 219–20
dispute with Kuwait 211–12
foreign policy 152, 182, 208–10
invasion of Kuwait 67, 87, 131, 134, 206–12, 219–20
revolution in 26–7, 206
state formation 206–10
as war state 206–10
war with Iran 195–8, 208, 219; see also Hussein, Saddam
irredentism 5, 56, 72, 74, 78, 152–3, 155–9, 173, 230
Islam
and international relations 67–71
and Iran’s revolution 191–5
movements/opposition 88, 99, 122, 128, 130, 143, 181, 189–92
political 67–71, 84, 180, 231
Islamic Conference Organisation 6, 70–1
Israel
foreign policy making 111, 146–7
and globalisation 225, 230
identity 71–2
invasion of Lebanon 183–8, 224
1967 war 163–6
and peace process 224–30
politics, 146–7, 187, 224–6
public opinion 96, 147
and Sadat 178–9
security policy 158–9, 164–5
settlements of 173, 184, 224, 227–8
state formation 77, 154
worldview 158, 183–4; see also Barak; Begin; Ben Gurion; Labour party; Likud party; Peres; Rabin; United States, alliance with Israel
Jerusalem 184
Johnson, Lyndon 30, 170
Jordan
alliances 161
crisis of 1957 25
democratisation 89
1967 war 167–8
public opinion 95–6
state formation 148–9, 152; see also Hussein, King
Khomeini, Ayatollah Rouhollah 149, 190, 191–3, 199
Kissinger, Henry 32–5, 116, 130, 180
Korany, Bahgat 5, 204
Kurds 5, 55–6
and Iraq 190, 206, 208
and Turkey 145, 223–4, 230
Kuwait 41, 52, 60, 209, 211–12
labour migration 46, 48, 50, 58
Labour movements 20, 79, 125
Labour party (of Israel) 147, 184, 224–6
leadership 141, 171, 219
Lebanon
civil war 179–80, 185
conflict in south 134, 185
crisis of 1958 26–7
identity 56
Syrian intervention in 179, 185
legitimacy 8, 15, 20, 21, 49, 57, 67, 69, 72, 74–89 passim, 177, 180–1, 212, 229, 231, 235, 238–9
Likud party 147, 173, 184–5, 224–5, 230
MacMahon-Hussein, correspondence 155
Madrid Conference 224–5, 229, 234; see also peace, process
Maghreb 60
middle class 17, 21, 65, 67, 68, 77–8, 100, 125, 160, 177, 225
Middle East Common Market 229
military in politics 21, 78, 79, 81, 99–108, 109–10
minorities 55
Mohteshemi, Ali Akbar 198
monarchies 73, 74, 78–9, 87, 111
Moon, Bruce 3
Mossadeq, Mohammed 37–8, 149, 154, 188–9, 190
Mubarak, Husni 180, 211, 231
Mufti, Malik 206
multipolarity 159–60, 181–3
Musavi, Mir Hussein 198–9
Muslim brotherhood 20
Nasser, Gamal Abdul 22–32 passim, 63–4, 95, 108–9, 114–16, 125, 137, 160–70 passim
nation-building 54–8, 71–2, 145
neo-patrimonialism 75, 80, 83
neo-realism 1, 10; see also realism
Niblock, Tim 58
Nixon, Richard 32
administration 40
Doctrine 51, 190
Noble, Paul 58
Nuclear non-proliferation treaty 234
oil 35–52
and Arabism 49–51, 67
boom and bust 39–51
companies 36–8
and dependency 35–6, 46–8
effect on states 41–9, 67, 80–6, 85–6, 127–9, 177, 180, 182, 207
embargo (weapon) 39–41, 126, 176, 211, 215
and Gulf war 214–15
market 37–9, 43–4, 214–15
nationalisation of 38–9
swing producer 4, 41, 43, 214
OPEC 36–44
order, regional 2, 10–12, 201–3, 204–5, 231–2, 238–9
Oslo accord 226–8
Ottoman Empir 15–18, 58, 105
Ozal, Turgut 107–8, 143, 144, 145
Palestine 19, 62, 65, 123, 126, 133, 136, 138, 155–9, 161, 167, 174
Palestinian Authority (PA) 227–9
Palestinians 149, 187
exodus 157
identity 156
and Oslo agreement 226
revolt of 1936 156
and war of 1967 167
Palestinian state 133, 172, 175, 226–9
Pan-Arabism 5–6, 10, 49–50, 56, 58–67, 133, 161–3, 177, 201–2, 208, 210–12, 222, 223, 226, 237
Pan-Arab system 159–63, 176–8, 201–2
pariah states 232–3, 235
parliaments 110
Pax Americana 204, 231–6; see also US
peace
process 204–5, 224–9, 238
settlement 177, 179
treaty, Egypt–Israel 185
zones of 12, 230–1
penetrated system 14, 205
Peres, Shimon 166, 225, 229
Periphery Pact 29, 163
personalisation of power 112–13
PKK 146, 223
PLO 130, 157, 172, 175, 179, 183, 185–7, 224–9
pluralism 2, 11–13, 121, 141–7, 152, 204, 229–31
pluralist states 111, 146–7
populist coalitions/regimes 86, 94
praetorian 75, 77, 78
presidents 79, 81, 108–10, 137
public opinion 94–6, 144, 146, 221, 227, 236
al-Qa’ida 236
Qasim, Abd al-Karim 27, 162
Rabin, Yitzhak 141, 225
Rafsanjani, Hashemi 198–9
rational actor 2, 6, 7–9, 93, 112, 120, 133
realism 3, 11, 12, 63, 121, 141, 151
regime
international 10–11, 65
Pan-Arab 161–2, 201–2
regional system 9–12, 155–203
rentierism 46
revisionism 7, 9, 15, 74 181, 188, 191
revolution 188–92
Roger’s Plan 32, 175
Sadat, Anwar al- 32–5, 95, 100, 109–10, 113, 116–18, 137, 141, 177–80, 184
Said, Nuri al- 23–4
Saudi Arabia
decision-making 129–30
foreign policy 131–3, 156, 174, 177, 182, 212–13
and Iran 194, 197
and oil 39–45
state formation 18, 122–8, 148–9, 151
and US 39–45, 52, 125, 131–3
security dilemma 10, 67, 80, 155, 202, 232
September 11 events 205, 236, 239
Shah, Muhammed Pahlavi 29, 96, 188–91
Shamir, Yitzhak 184, 187, 225
Sharon, Ariel 184, 229, 230
Shi’a Muslims 55–6, 186–7, 193–5, 198, 200, 206, 208
Sinai peninsula
agreements over 117, 178
occupation 137, 140
sovereignty 5–6, 61–7, 72, 212, 228, 238
Soviet Union (USSR) 4, 21–35 passim, 87, 168, 170, 183, 186, 192, 193, 210, 212, 218, 220
state-building 57, 73–4, 127, 177
state formation 7–8, 56, 73–90, 138, 147–9
state structural type 76
Stein, Janice 171
structuralism 2, 12, 121, 216; see also dependency
Sunni Muslims 55, 128, 138, 194–5, 208
Syria
crisis of 1957 26
decision-making 130
identity 61, 136
foreign policy 133–4, 139–41, 167–8, 174–5, 179, 182, 213
Iran alliance 200, 223, 234
and Israel in Lebanon 185–7
military 102–5
and peace process, 178, 179, 227, 228
state formation 123–30, 138; see also Asad; wars
Telhami, Shibley 117–18
terrorism 70, 205, 224, 236–7, 239
traditional states 75, 76–7
Tripp, Charles 219
Turkey
alliance with Israel 145–6, 223
conflict with Syria 145, 223
foreign policy 26, 29, 144–6, 230
foreign policy determinants 142–3
foreign policy process 97, 143–4
identity 71–2
military 100, 101, 105–8
state formation 18, 77; see also Ataturk; Ottoman Empire; Ozal
UAR 26
ulama 124, 129–30, 149, 194
umma 17, 54–5, 68, 180, 193
UNEF 167
United Nations 193, 199, 232, 234, 235
and Palestine partition 156
Resolution 242 171–2, 173, 224
sanctioning Iraq 233
United States
alliance with Israel 24, 29, 32, 39, 186, 238
in Gulf 51–2, 200–1
and Iran 188–9, 192–3, 197–8
and Iraq 215–18, 220–1, 232–3
policy process 220–1
role in region 21, 24–7, 30–5, 39–41, 51–3, 170, 186, 205, 212, 237–9; see also Dulles; hegemony; Kissinger; Nixon; Pax Americana
wahhabism 122, 131
Wallerstein 216
Walt, Stephen 63, 64
wars
Arab–Israeli: of 1948 156–7
of 1956: 165
of 1967: 30–1, 115, 126–7, 133, 163–73
of 1973: 33–4, 39–40, 67, 126–7, 135, 139, 175–8
of attrition 31–2, 67
effect on states 202
Gulf 52, 205–21
Iran–Iraq 51–2, 67, 183, 185, 195–200
in Lebanon 183–8
roots of 154–5
water disputes 223
weapons of mass destruction 217, 224, 232
West Bank 164, 185, 187, 227–9
autonomy plan 184
Young Turks 17, 105
Zionism 19, 71, 93, 155–6, 183, 220

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