‘Unity is strength’
The International Arbitration and Peace Association
in ‘The truest form of patriotism’

This chapter explores how the International Arbitration and Peace Association (IAPA), founded in 1880, was the main secular peace organisation in Britain and the one which experienced the greatest conflict with the Peace Society. The absolutist Peace Society dominated the British peace movement throughout most of the nineteenth century. However, its absolutism was increasingly challenged from mid-century onwards, and it became apparent by the 1870s, as a result of republican nationalist campaigns in Europe, and in Britain the rise of working men's peace groups and the growth of the women's movement, that there was also some demand for a secular peace organisation. As an organisation, the IAPA drew together discourses of liberalism, socialism, Evangelicalism, feminism and internationalism, a blend that made it central to both the British and European peace movements. The chapter also outlines the IAPA's contribution to the late Victorian peace movement and the role of women in its work.

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‘The truest form of patriotism’

Pacifist feminism in Britain, 1870–1902

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