Index
in Turkey: facing a new millennium

INDEX

Note: “n.” after a page reference indicates a note number on that page.

Adana 90
Memorandum 186, 187
Aegean islands 171–173, 191
aircraft, military
F-4 Phantoms 13, 19, 173, 207, 215, 226
F-5 229
F-15 214
F-16 27, 113, 166, 229
KC-135R 142
American Jewish Committee (AJC) 216
Amnesty International 153, 154, 158
Anatolia 41, 70, 76, 172
Anavatan Partisi (ANAP) 115, 116, 117
Ankara
and Gulf crisis 5, 23, 25
see also Gulf War (1991)
Iran–Turkish relations 99, 100, 101
Kocatepe Mosque 90
Kurdish problem, responses to 39, 41–44
Yasar Kemal on 69
anti-guerrilla warfare 35, 44
Arab States, Turkish relationship with 14–16
Arafat, Yasser 15, 23, 209–210
Armenians in First World War 71, 104, 186, 210, 212
arms race, Greek–Turkish relations 173–176
Aswan Dam 6, 10
Ataturk Dam 10, 19
Austria 68, 181
Azerbaijan 27, 70, 103–105, 111, 161n.37, 211
International Operating Company (AIOC) 134–135, 137, 139, 140
Aziz, Tariq 9, 18
Bageri, Mohhamad Reza 100, 217
Baghdad 9, 16, 17, 30n.7, 202
Bahceli, Devlet 71, 116
Baku–Tiblisi–Ceyhan pipeline project 105, 127, 131, 133, 135–140
Barazani, Massoud 38, 40, 150–151
Barkey, Henry 36, 71
Beirut, American marines landing in 6, 7
bilateral agreements, Israel 13, 203
Black Sea Economic Cooperation Region (BSECR/BSEC) 21
Boeing 737-800 commercial planes 71–72
Bosporus and Canakkale Safety of Passage Act (1994) 130
Bosporus Straits 111, 127–131
Bush, President George 20, 23, 24, 156, 166, 176
Canakkale Straits 111, 127–131
Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) 137, 139, 140
Caspian Sea 14, 137, 138, 161n.37
Caucasian/Central Asian Republics see Central Asian/Caucasian Republics
Cem, Ismail 58, 59–60, 138, 139, 183, 188, 190, 202
Central Asian/Caucasian Republics
energy resources, battle for109, 133–134
language 102–103
military system 123–124
Turkish–European relations 72
Turkish identity, quest for 108–115, 245–246
Turkish–Iranian relations 101, 102
Turkish–Russian relations 123–125
US spending 135–136
Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion (CENTRASBAT) 138
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 49
Cetin, Hikmet 110, 239n.5
Ciller, Tansu
on Aegean 172
customs union with EU, agreement on 66
elections (1999) 115, 116
and Greece 167, 169
Israel, visit to 203
Kurdish problem, responses to 47
True Path Party 116, 220
Western hostility to 71
civil trade 131–132
Clinton, Bill 143, 165, 192
Administration of 156–157, 177
cold war, end of 7, 8, 167
Committee for the Protection of Journalists (CPJ) 153, 154
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 73, 74, 75, 132
Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) 188
Constantinople, fall of (1453) 165
Constitutional Court, Turkish 154–155
continental shelf, Greek–Turkish relations 171–173
Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) 171
COSMOS (Greek newsletter) 173, 188
coup, officers (1980) 33, 37, 88–89
CPC (Caspian Pipeline Consortium) 137, 139, 140
CPJ (Committee for the Protection of Journalists) 153, 154
Cuban missile crisis (1962)14
Cumhuriyet 209, 215, 229
customs union (Turkey-EU) 55–56
“Customs Union Package” 66
Cypriot Treaty of Guarantee (1960) 181
Cyprus
arms sales to 207
crisis (1964 and 1974) 14, 20–21, 166, 168, 170
and EU 66, 180–182
future 182–184
Greek–Turkish relations 6, 7, 8, 167–168, 178–184
and Gulf War (1991) 23–24
partition (1974) 165
Turkish intervention, political isolation 15
Damascus
Athens, accords with 205
eviction of Abdullah Ocalan from 44, 107, 108, 204, 209
US/Turkish policies 147
Dardanelles Straits 111, 127–131
Demirel, Suleiman
on agricultural/industrial production 80–81
assassination attempt (1996) 218
on domestic issues 3–4
on Kurds 34, 48, 58
on Nagorno Karabakh conflict 70
National Security Council, address to 219
on population growth 68
on water dispute 11
demographics 64–65, 67–68
Directorate of Religious Affairs of Turkey 95, 111
Dulles, John Foster 6–7
earthquakes (1999) 57, 171, 189, 235–236
Ecevit, Bulent 45, 57, 59, 101, 115, 117
and Greek–Turkish relations 174, 187, 190, 194
Economist, The (Survey of Turkey) 27, 33, 39, 62
economy, Turkish
agricultural production 80–81
contradictions 73–82
decline (2000) 79
deficit 58, 73
and EU accession 58–59
exports/imports 9, 15, 58, 73–75, 78, 81
Germany, trade with 75
growth (1990s) 76–77, 81
Gulf War 24–29
industrial production 80–81
inflation 8, 24, 78
interest rates 79, 81
privatization 77
Russia, trade with 74, 75
tourism79, 81–82
unemployment 80
United States, trade with 75
world slump 73
see also GDP (gross domestic product); GNP (gross national product)
education system 97–98
elections 115–117
Eleventh Army Corps 178–179
Elpeleg, Zvi 209, 210, 216
EMU (European Monetary Union) 175, 176
energy resources
Central Asian markets 109, 133–134
crisis (1973) 14
nationalism (Turkish) 94–95
Turkish–Russian relations 125–127
see also oil resources
Enosis (unification of Greece and Cyprus) 5, 181, 182, 183, 184
Eralp, Atila 72, 94
Erbakan, Necmettin
Ciller, co-operation with 115
foreign policy 1
gas imports 94
on Greece 169
and Israel 215
Ozal and Ecevit contrasted 57
religious education 97
toppling from power 157
and Turkish nationalism 92, 93–94, 95
Ergil, Dogu 42, 86, 87
ERNK (National Liberation Front of Kurdishtan) 170
EU (European Union)
accession to Europe (Turkey) 1, 5
Ankara, bypassing of 56
Helsinki, negotiation of membership (1999) 1, 57, 60, 70, 72
Turgut Ozal on 72
and Cyprus 66, 180–182
exports to (Turkish) 15, 74
Greek/Turkish relations 180–182, 184–185
immigration, Germany 60–65
Turkish relations with 1, 5, 55–85
background 8
customs union 55–56, 66
domestic issues 3
exports, EU share of 15, 74
image 70
negotiations 65–73
and PKK 59
Euphrates river, Turkish damming of 9, 10, 19
European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) 69
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 69, 152
European Monetary Union (EMU) 175, 176
European Parliament, Turkish representation, potential impact 67
European Union see EU (European Union), Turkish relations with
Evren, General Kenan 191
coup of 1980 33, 37, 88–89
exports
Israeli 207
Turkish 9, 15, 58, 73–75, 78, 81
Exxon-Mobile Corporation 190
F-4 Phantoms13, 19, 173, 207, 215, 226
F-5 aircraft 229
F-15 aircraft 214
F-16 aircraft 27, 113, 166, 229
Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party) 71, 95, 99, 116, 155, 218
Fener Greek Orthodox Patriarchate 192, 219
FIR (Flight Information Region) 171, 172, 191
First World War, Armenians in 71, 104, 186, 210, 212
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) 176, 186
France 68, 202
Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 226
freedom of expression 8, 70, 153–154, 155, 247
Freedom Support Act (FSA) 1992 135, 136
fuel, demand for see energy resources
GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project) 9, 10, 37, 41, 227, 236
gas, demand for 14, 94, 125–126, 133, 147–148
GDP (gross domestic product)
distribution by sectors 80
drop in (2001) 79
and economic growth, Turkish 76
and Gulf War 12, 13, 24–25
and Kurds 41
and Portugal 67
Syria 107
see also economy, Turkish
Germany 59, 60–65, 75
GNP (gross national product)
debt, Turkish 80
drop in (2001) 79
and economic slump 73
and education 97
Greece 167–168, 175, 176
and Gulf War 24
strengths, Turkish economy 76, 77
Syria 107
Turkey/Portugal compared 67
see also economy, Turkish
Greek Orthodox Church 184, 186, 192, 219
Greek–Turkish relations 2, 165–200
1919–22 war 165, 170
Aegean islands 171–173, 191
arms race 173–176
Athens–Damascus accords 205
conflict 168–171
continental shelf 171–173
ethnic problems 185–188
EU membership negotiations 56
future developments 193–195
military cooperation agreement 207
minorities 185–188
talks 188–191
and United States 176–177
see also Cyprus
Greeks of Turkey: Under Threat of Elimination 186
Grey Wolf (paramilitary youth organization) 87, 178
gross domestic product (GDP) see GDP (gross domestic product)
gross national product (GNP) see GNP (gross national product)
guerrilla warfare (PKK) 33, 34, 36, 37, 43, 44, 50
see also PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan)
Gul, Abdullah 93
Gulf War (1991) 5–32
customs agreement, EU/Turkey 66
economic losses (Turkish) 24–26
eruption of 16–20
EU entry, Turkey 1, 5
gains (Turkish) 26–29
inside conflicts (Turkey) 246
and Kurdish issue 34
non-participation by Turkey 28
profit–loss balance 65
regional reactions 23–24
Turkish response 20–23
Ha’aretz (Israeli daily newspaper) 205, 212, 241n.58
Habur Gate trade point, closure 45
HADEP (People’s Democracy Party) 154
Halabjah village incident (1988) 11
Hale, William 74, 81
Helsinki, negotiation of Turkey’s EU membership (1999) 1, 57, 60, 70, 72
hijab (Islamic head covering) 63, 68, 88, 96
Hizbullah (Muslim radicals) 51, 100, 230
Holocaust 210, 212
Human Development Index, United Nations 41, 78
human rights 50, 57, 59, 69, 152–159
Human Rights Watch/Helsinki 153, 154
Hurriyet (Turkish daily newspaper) 47, 72, 80, 237
Hussein, Saddam
and Gulf crisis 16, 17–19, 22, 23
see also Gulf War (1991)
and Kurdish problem 11, 34, 39
and Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of 9, 17
Turkey/US relations141
IAI (Israel Aircraft Industry) 229–230
identity, quest for 86–121
Imam Hatip schools 97, 217
immigrants, Turkish 60–65
imports, Turkish 9, 74–75
see also exports, Turkish
Incirlik, US/NATO base in 8, 145, 146
industrial production, Turkey 80–81
inflation 8, 24, 58, 78
interest rates, Turkey 79, 81
International Atomic Agency 142
International Civilian Aviation 172
International Court of Justice (The Hague) 185, 191
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 77, 78, 117
International Organization of Authors and Poets (PAN) 153
Iran
Israel, relationship with 202
and Kurds 11, 103–106
PKK, support for 99, 103, 104
oil fields, rights to 161n.37
and Turkey 94, 99–103
Iran–Iraq war (1980–88) 9, 15, 16
Iran–Libya Sanctions Act (1996) 148
Iranian Revolutionary Guards 106
Iraq
coup (1958) 6
GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project) 9, 10
and Kurds 39–40
Kuwait, invasion of 9, 15, 17, 18
oil embargo 148
“Safe Zone” see “Safe Zone/Haven” (Northern Iraq)
Security Council Observation Mission 19
Shi’ite Muslims in 26
Turkish relations
background 9–13
debt to Turkey 5, 12
water resources dispute 5, 9–11
Turkoman minority 11, 12
US bombing against 149, 151
see also Iran–Iraq war (1980–88)
Islam 61, 63–64, 86–99
Islamic Conference 14, 234
Israel Aircraft Industry (IAI) 229–230
Israeli–Turkish relations 2, 201–244
Arab/Muslim reactions 230–235
civil cooperation 226–230
cultural exchanges 228–229
Gulf War 13
military issues 220–226
periods 202–203
policies and attitudes 215–218
tourism 228
trade 227
Istanbul
BSECR/BSEC (Black Sea Economic Cooperation Region), foundations of 21
D-8 bloc established in 93
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in 192, 219
Heybeliada Clerical School 192
industrial growth 76
as Kurdish city 90
mosque, failure to build 92
Istanbul Stock Exchange (IMKB) 74, 76
Jerusalem 206, 217, 228, 230
Jihad (Holy War) 93
Kazakhstan 110, 113, 133, 137, 161n.37
Kemal, Yasar 69, 84n.42
Kemalism 14, 36, 37, 46, 48, 110, 114
Kerkuk 11, 34
Kerkuk–Yumurtalik pipeline 9, 24
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla 100, 101
Kirisci, Kemal 150, 156
Kocatepe Mosque, Ankara 90
Korean War (1950–53), Turkish participation 1, 2, 11, 72
Kosovo crisis 144, 193
Kurdish Workers Party see PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan)
Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) 38, 40
Kurds 33–54
cultural issues 39, 45–52
factionalism 39, 40, 42
and human rights issues 154
and Iran 11, 103–106
Iraqi and Turkish, distinguished 39–40
language 39, 40, 47, 57
use in education 58
policy changes by Turks 22–23
poverty 41–42
as refugees 11, 34, 50
responses to, Turkish 2, 41–44, 47
“Safe Zone” see “Safe Zone/Haven” (Northern Iraq)
television broadcasts, ban on 35, 57, 58, 70
see also PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan)
Kuwait, Iraqi invasion (1990) 9, 17, 18, 23
eviction of Iraq (1991) 15
see also Gulf War (1991)
language 39, 40, 47, 57, 58, 102–103
Lausanne, Treaty of (1923) 46
Le Monde, survey in 63
League of Nations 11
Lebanon 6, 20
Lewis, Bernard 7, 205
Liel, Alon 202–203, 239
lira, Turkish, devaluation 79–80
Luxembourg decision, EU membership negotiations (1997) 56
Makovsky, Alan 40, 79
Mango, Andrew 76, 94
Marmara, Sea of 127, 128
Megali Idea 166, 194
metals, Turkish production of 77
military issues
defense budget, increase by Turkey 12
future spending (Turkey) 12–13
and Gulf War 19, 27
Incirlik, air base in 8, 145, 146
Iraq 17
Israeli–Turkish relations 13, 220–226
Russian–Turkish trade132–133
Syrian army 7
Milliyetci Haraket Partisi (MHP 71, 92, 116, 117
Milliyetcilik see nationalism, Turkish
minorities
Greek–Turkish relations 185–188
Turkoman (Northern Iraq) 11, 12
MIT (Turkey’s National Intelligence Organization) 100
Montreux Straits Convention (1936) 129, 130
Moss, Kenneth 58–59
Motherland Party (Anavatan Partisi) 115, 116, 117
Muslim Welfare Party see Refah Partisi (RP)
Muslims
clergymen, dispatch to Turkish diaspora 68
in Germany 60, 63
influence in Turkey, growth 87
Israeli–Turkish relations, reactions 230–235
leadership challenges 56
political success 89
prayer practice 68, 69, 88, 91
revival in Turkey 90, 91, 98
terrorist acts 96
see also Islam; Shi’ite Muslims; Sunni Muslims
Nagorno–Karabakh conflict 70, 104, 105, 113, 136, 211
National Intelligence Organization (MIT) 100
National Liberation Front of Kurdishtan (ERNK) 170
National Order Party (Islamic) 92
National Security Council (NSC) 34, 71
nationalism, Turkish 14, 15, 86–99, 246
Nationalist Action Party (MHP) 71, 92, 116, 117
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
American–Turkish cooperation 144
army, Turkish 7
defense spending (Greece) 168, 173
Incirlik, military base in 8, 145, 146
Joint Southern Command Center 193
and Korean War (1950–53) 1
security budgets 13
training exercises 193
Turkish admission into 72
Turkish–Greek relations 170–171
natural gas 14
Naval Forces Command 13
NCOs (non-commissioned officers) 89
NEMs (newly emerging markets) 73
neo-Ottomanism 26
Netanyahu, Binjamin 141, 203, 204, 208–209, 211, 215, 217, 230
NICs (newly industrialized countries) 73
North Atlantic Treaty Organization see NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
NOTAM (Notice to Airman) 171
Novorossiysk, Black Sea port of 133, 137, 139
Ocalan, Abdullah
capture
avenge, fear of 79
Kurdish problem 36, 51
and Turkish patriotism 71, 116
Turkish–Syrian crisis, Israeli stand 204
and United States 157, 158–159
Damascus
bombing of 147
eviction from 44, 107, 108, 204, 209
death, sentencing to 49
and Kurdish culture 39
PKK, founding of 36
OFEK-4 229
oil crisis (1970s)/Oil for Food project 25, 133
oil resources
Aegean continental shelf 172
Arab states 14–15
Central Asia/Caucasus 133, 137
Gulf War, economic losses 24
Iraqi–Turkish dispute 9, 11
nationalism (Turkish) 94
Straits, tankers in 128
Syria, import from 107
Turkish–Russian relations 125–127
oil smuggling 148–149
Operation Blue Stream 126
Operation Northern Watch 25–26, 215
Operation Provide Comfort 26, 43, 215
Ottoman Empire
Azerbaijan, rule of 104
capitulation system 78
Concert of Europe, invitation to join (1856) 60
ethnic groups 88
and minorities 12
Sevres, Treaty of (1920) 46, 71
and Turkish fighting 26
and Turkish nationalism 15
Ozal, Torgut
achievements 21
anti-Iraq coalition, support for 65
death 43
and EU, Turkish accession 1, 72
and Gulf crisis 17, 19, 20–23, 28–29
Kurdish problem, responses 47
state of emergency, proclaiming of (1987) 33, 47
status in Turkish politics 5
successes 57
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 15
PAN (International Organization of Authors and Poets) 153
pan-Turkism (Turkculkuk) 108, 109
Pangalos, Theodoros 168, 169, 170, 177, 179
Papandreou, Andreas 7, 188
Papandreou, George 167, 188, 190, 194
Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan see PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan)
“Patriot” anti-missile-missiles 19, 26
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) 40
PCB (polychlorinatedbiphenyl) 145–146
penal code
Article 312, abolition 59
Section 163, reinstatement 95
People to People projects 228, 229
People’s Democracy Party (HADEP) 154
Peres, Shimon 202, 212, 215, 216, 239n.5
Phantoms 19, 173, 207, 215
upgrading of 13, 226
PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan)
anti-terror cooperation agreement (Syria) 48–49, 103, 186, 187
Athens, office in 170
casualties 49
confrontation with 28, 43–44
criminal status 50
and EU policy 59
financial resources, Turkish 174–175
financing of activities 35
GAP project, attacks on 41
growth, increase in 34–35
Iran, support from 99, 103, 104
logistic bases, closure by Russi 48
origins 36, 42–43
state of emergency, proclaiming of (1987) 33, 47
Syrian collaboration with 170
terror campaigns
brutality, extent of 36
and criminal status 50
EU list of 72
international attitudes 150, 154, 157
Northern Iraq 34
southeastern provinces 37, 43
state of emergency (1987) 33
tactics against 44
uprising (1984) 15, 36, 37, 90
crushing of 1, 2
see also Kurds
Platias, Athanassios 166, 168
PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) 15
Poised Hammer (military activities 26
population growth see demographics
Porat, Yehoshua 205, 212
Portugal, GDP 67
prayer activity 68, 69, 88, 91
Primakov, Yevgeny 216
privatization policies 77
Protocols of the Elders of Zion 216
public sector deficits 77
Purchasing Power Parities 77
Rabin, Yitzhak 141, 214, 217
Radikal (Turkish daily) 208, 229
Ramadan 88, 92
Refah Partisi (RP)
on Aghia Sophia, conversion to a mosque 186
bribery scandals 95
dissolving of 154–155, 206
elections (1999) 116
and Israeli–Turkish relations 217, 218–220
and Muslim revival 98, 99
nationalism, Turkish 89, 90, 92–93
rise of 71
refugees, Kurdish 34, 50
Reliant Mermaid (tripartite naval rescue exercise) 221, 235
Republican People’s Party 115
Republics, Central Asian see Central Asian/Caucasian Republics
Robins, Philip 34, 48, 92, 235, 241n.59
RP (Refah Partisi) see Refah Partisi (RP)
Russia
Armenia, relations with 105
and Armenian–Azerbaijani conflict 113
and national language 102
oil fields, rights to 161n.37
Turkey, relations with 122–127, 131, 132
economic issues 74, 75
see also Soviet Union
Rustow, Dankwart 7
Ruz-al-Yusuf (Egyptian paper) 32n.44
Sadabad Pact (1937) 9, 29–30n.7
“Safe Zone/Haven” (Northern Iraq)
and Gulf War 11, 25–26
and Iran 103
Kurdish problem 34, 36, 38–40, 43, 48
and Turkish–American relations 150
Salah al-Din 18, 40
Schiff, Zeev 241n.58
Selcuk, Ilhan 215–216
Sevres, Treaty of (1920) 46, 71
Sezer, Ahmet Necdet 106, 117
Shi’ite Muslims 26, 101, 105
Sitilides, John 189, 192
South East European Brigade (SEEBRIG) 193
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) 9, 10, 37, 41, 227, 236
Soviet Union 6, 28, 43, 102
see also Russia
Soysal, Mumtaz 209
Stalin, Joseph 102–103
State Department (US), human rights issues 152–159
Straits 111, 127–131
“suitcase economy” (Russia) 73, 74
Sun Theory of Language 87
Sunni Muslims 51, 96, 101
surface-to-air missiles 179–180, 206, 216, 235
Survey of Turkey (The Economist) 27, 33, 39, 62
Syria 106–108
and anti-PKK campaign 43
anti-terror cooperation agreement 103, 186, 187
anti-terror cooperation agreement (PKK) 48–49
arms build-up in 6–7
PKK (Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan), collaboration with 170
on Turkish/Israeli collaboration 202
water resources dispute 5, 10
TAI (Turkish aircraft industry) 27
Talabani, Jalal 40, 150–151
TDN (Turkish Daily News) see Turkish Daily News (TDN)
Tehran 99, 101
Thrace, Eastern and Western 46, 185
Tigris river, and water resources 9, 10, 12
Time magazine 5, 28, 69, 75, 153
TL (Turkish lira) 24, 42, 73, 78, 79–80
Togan, Zeki Velidi 109–110
Toledano, Ehud 210, 211
Torumtay, General Necip 21, 28, 29
tourism 79, 81–82, 189, 228
tripartite conventions 10, 13
True Path Party 116, 220
Truman Doctrine (1947) 6, 7, 20
Turanism (Turanalik) 108, 109, 110
Turkculkuk (pan-Turkism) 108, 109
Turkish Airlines 35, 77
Turkish Daily News (TDN)
on Europe69
and Greece 169
on Kurdish problem 48, 51
on Straits 129
on US relations 143, 146, 149
Turkish International Cooperation Agency (TICA) 111
Turkish lira (TL) 24, 42, 73, 78, 79–80
Turkish Minority of Western Thrace 185
Turkish Press Council 153
Turkmeni–Turkish agreement 127
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) 178–184, 191
Turkmenistan 110, 112, 127, 137, 148, 161n.37
Turkoman minority, Northern Iraq 11, 12
UAE (United Arab Emirates) 15
UN (United Nations)
and Gulf War 22, 24
High Commissioner of Refugees 136
Human Development Index 41, 78
inspection teams, expulsion 142
on poverty, Turkish 80
Resolutions of
Oil for Food project (Resolution 986) 25
Yumurtalik outlet, shutting of 9
see also UNSCOM (Security Council Observation Mission in Iraq)
unemployment 41, 62, 80
Unified Defence Doctrines (UDD) 180
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 15
United Nations (UN) see UN (United Nations)
United States
Central Asia/Caucasus, financial help for 136
energy requirements 134
Freedom Support Act (FSA) 1992 135
human rights 152–159
Iraq, bombing against 149, 151
and Israel 213–214
Tripoli, bombing of (1986) 142
Turkish relations 140–152
and allies 159
areas of disagreement 145–152
background 6–8
and Greece 176–177
and human rights 152–159
imports from Turkey 75
shared interests 143–145
“War Against Terror” 23
UNSCOM (Security Council Observation Mission in Iraq) 19
urbanization process, Turkey 67–68
Uzbekistan 110, 113
veils, wearing of 63, 68, 88, 96
Village Guards 35, 49, 51
Virtue Party (Fazilet Partisi) 71, 95, 99, 116, 155, 218
“Voice of America” 153–154
water development project see GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project)
water dispute (Iraqi–Turkish) 5, 9–11
Welfare Party see Refah Partisi (RP)
Winrow, Gareth 28, 109, 111, 112
World Bank 75–76, 77, 97
Yad Vashem 206, 230
Yaroslav Forest, closure of medical centers 48
YASED (Turkish Young Entrepreneurs Association) 32n.53
Yilmaz, Mesut
on education 97
on Europe 56
and general elections (1999) 115–116, 117
and Israel 202, 230
and Kurdish problem 50
Yom Kippur war (1973) 15
Yugoslavia, Former 60–61
Zakho, PKK in 34
Zaman (Turkish paper) 226, 230
zero-sum solutions 48, 201

Turkey: facing a new millennium

Coping with intertwined conflicts

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