Index
in Progress and pathology

Index

Page references for figures are given in italics; for tables in the format 206t; and for notes in the format 265n.4.

abnormality 81–2, 90–1
accidents 57, 71, 92, 316
accountability 56–8, 69–72
advertisements 17–18, 247–65
in China 254–64, 259, 261–4, 262
Chinese language 257–64, 259, 262
English language 251, 257, 261
testimonials 257–8
Africa 178–9, 253
agency 46–7, 319
alternative medicine see Ayurveda; phrenology; ‘traditional’ medicine
America see United States of America
amputation 89
anatomy 222, 232–3
anthrax 136
antisepsis 61
anti-vaccination movements 108, 116
Asia 179, 220, 237, 275
India 237–8, 241, 253
Asperger, Hans 113–14, 123n.94
asylums 278–9
Australia 270–1
Austria 70
authoritarianism 32–4, 46–7
autism 113–14, 115–18
Ayurveda 217–42
versus biomedicine 222–3, 232–3
and the body 227–35
decline of 221–2
doshas (elements) 226–33
kapha (fluid) 228–9, 230, 231
pitta (heat) 228–9, 230, 231, 232–3
vayu (force) 228–9, 230, 231
modernity of 219–20, 222–3
physiograms 234–5, 234, 235
physiology 227–35
prakriti (nature) 224–5
and religion 230, 231
scientificity 224–7
six objects of 226–7
Snayubik Man 231–5
snayus (threads) 229, 231–2
Susruta Samhita 232–3
bacteriology 131, 133, 136, 271
Bangladesh 220
Beard, George Miller 1–3, 158–9, 209
biomedicine 108, 217–18, 222–3, 232–3
Blackwell, Elizabeth 110
blood poisoning 279, 280
body
Ayurvedic 227–35
baseness of 136–7
economy of 161–2
embodiment 19, 321
escape from 138
and fatigue 157–9, 163–6
metaphors of 163–4, 183, 187
and modernity 7, 17, 22n.25, 144
natural rhythms 160
optimisation of 163–6
reticulated 227–32
as thermodynamic engine 154, 157, 163–4
brain 105–7, 116, 233, 234
British Empire 89, 186–7, 237, 241, 270–1
see also imperialism
British Phrenological Society 103
Cabanis, Pierre-Jean-Georges 35, 42
cancer 173–88
civilisation, disease of 177–82
and degeneration theories 181–4
as ‘epidemic’ 176–9, 184–5
health, disease of 185–7
metaphors of 182–5
modernity, consequence of 173–4, 187–8
mortality rates 176–7
and race 178–82
treatment of 175–6
Cannon, Walter 302–3
capitalism 100, 104, 105, 118, 161, 304–5, 314
Carpenter, William 282–3, 284
cellular pathology 183
charity 78–9, 81–8, 89–93
childbirth 65–6, 306–7
childhood 80, 84–5
children
in advertisements 260, 262, 263
autistic 113
criminal 81
disabled/impaired 78, 80–3, 86–90, 91–2
disease in 89–90, 92
girls 83–4
health of 79–80
medical information for 112–13
normality/abnormality of 81–2, 90–1
orphans 84–5, 89
‘rescue’/removal of 79, 80, 86–7, 89–94
sexual abuse of 86
‘wild’ 39–42
work of 84, 87
children's homes 83, 86, 90
China 248–9, 254–65, 259, 262, 265n.4
cholera 79, 139
Christianity 270–1, 274, 275, 287
cities 129–30, 131–2, 133–5, 138, 141
civilisation 2, 6–7, 42, 146n.18, 160–3
diseases of 177–82, 186
fatigue, cause of 4–5, 21n.16, 160–3
and mental illness 201–3, 278
progress of 18–19, 274, 275
class, social 89, 102, 162, 207, 313–15, 317, 319
middle class 87, 97n.52, 100, 102, 114, 162
and phrenology 100–1, 114
and stress 303–4
working class 85–6, 100–1, 102, 167–8
cleanliness see hygiene
colonialism see British Empire; imperialism
Combe, George 102, 105
communications technology 7, 228, 229, 237
complaint 299–301, 307–8, 321
Conan Doyle, Arthur, The Sign of Four 272
Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de 31
Constant, Benjamin 34
control, social 45–6
Cooter, Roger 9, 217–18
cosmology 220–1, 238–41
Creole peoples 181–2
crime 81, 84, 134, 141
Cullen, William 309
culpability 84, 310, 311
deaf-muteness 36–8
death 61, 134, 137, 142, 176–7, 188, 196–7, 273
see also suicide
debility 309–10
decadence 153–4
degeneration theories 12, 13, 15–16, 79, 139, 179–80, 212n.25
and cancer 181–4
and fatigue 155–6, 158–9
and suicide 199–200
deservingness 89–93
despotism 32–3, 34
Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude 31–2, 33–4
determinism 181, 198, 202, 207–8
diagnosis 222, 271–2, 273–4, 281–6
Dickens, Charles, Oliver Twist 306–9, 320
dirt 127–33, 135, 136, 139, 144–5, 312–18
see also excrement; hygiene
disability/impairment 36–8, 117
in children 78, 80–3, 86–90, 91–2
discrimination 89–93, 105, 114, 138
racism 2, 102, 114, 138–9, 237
disease
anthrax 136
in children 89–90, 92
cholera 79, 139
of civilisation 177–82, 186
debility 309–10
eradication of 134, 137–8, 139–40, 141
excrement-borne 79, 127–9, 130–2, 139
gangrene 61
of modernity 115, 158–9, 173–4, 187–8, 209–10
moral 27–8, 29
and mortality rates 176–7
and progress 6–7
scurvy 282
sepsis 61
syphilis 61
theories of 131, 132–4, 136, 138–9, 174
tuberculosis 177–8
of women 47n.4
see also cancer
disgust 128, 136–7, 142–3
doctors
expertise of 46, 61–2
‘failures’ of 62
and liability insurance 70–1
licensing 63, 64–5, 67, 70, 110, 221
litigation 59–60, 63
misconduct 57
power of 44
status of 61–2
women 109–13
see also medicine
Dowse, Thomas Stretch 4–5, 159
Dr. Williams’ Pink Pills 247–64, 265n.10, 267n.34
advertisements 250, 251, 252, 254–64, 259, 262
formula 251–2, 252t
marketing 250–1, 255–6
testimonials 257–8
yuefenpai (poster advert) 261–4, 262
drugs 17–18
Dunn, Hugh P. 185, 186
Durkheim, Émile, Le Suicide 16, 198, 203
dystopias 131–2, 134
education
of deaf-mute pupils 36–9
of disabled/impaired pupils 89–90
medical 221, 275–7
‘natural’ 37–9
and shock 40–1
systems 4, 84
and urbanisation 11–12
of ‘wild’ children 39–42
efficiency 164–8
ego 41, 47
Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. 6, 219
electricity 228, 229, 237–8
embodiment 19, 321
emotion 43–7, 135, 138, 143
energy 14, 154, 156–9, 161
enlightenment 34, 35, 36, 42
entitlements 298–9, 310
entropy 157–9
environmental health see nuisances inspectors; public health
epidemics 176–9, 184–5
Esquirol, Jean-Étienne 43–4, 197, 203
eugenics 102, 114, 117, 123n.94, 166
evolution, theories of 12, 13, 15–16, 199–200, 202
excrement
and disease 79, 127–9, 130–2, 139
eradication of 135, 137
sewerage 140–1, 315, 317
symbolism of 141–2
value of 140, 151n.112
exhaustion see fatigue; neurasthenia
experimentation 223–4, 238, 281, 284–5
faeces see excrement
families 83, 85–8, 92–3
famine 204–5
Farr, William 176
fatigue 153–68
and the body 157–60, 163–6
civilisation, consequence of 4–5, 21n.16, 160–3
and class 162
and degeneration 155–6, 158–9
eradication of 163–6
metaphors of 14, 161
as ‘natural’ limit 159–60
overwork 158, 302–3, 304–5
pathology of 154, 158–9, 309–10
psychological 165–6
and thermodynamics 156–9
fear 32–4, 37, 39, 283, 309–10
feminism 111–12, 114
Fiji 275
filth see dirt; excrement
fin-de-siècle period 153–68
in Britain 155, 162–3, 167–8
decadence 153–4
optimism 163–8
Finland 194, 196–8, 204–8, 206t, 211n.13
Flammarion, Camille, Uranie 129, 135–9, 143
food 136–7, 204–5, 297–8, 320
Fowler, Edward Payson 109
Fowler, Lorenzo (L. N.) 100–1, 103–5, 106, 107, 109–10, 118
Fowler, Lydia Folger 103–5, 109–13
Fowler, Orson (O. S.) 99–101, 103, 105–7, 106, 107, 108–9
Fowler Ormsbee Breakspear, Almira 109
Fowler Phrenological Institute (London) 103
Fowler Wells, Charlotte 103
France 4, 27, 129–30
Institution nationale des sourds-muets 36–42
public hygiene 130–1, 140–1
Society of the Observers of Man 35–6, 39–40
free will 198, 202, 207–8
French Revolution 27–47
Consulate 36–44
and moral shock 45–7
post-Terror period 31–5
September Massacres (1792) 37
Terror 39, 43, 45
Thermidorian Convention 32–4
Gall, Franz Joseph 99–100, 101–2
Galton, Francis 114, 166
gangrene 61
Gebhardt, Hannes 208
gender 29, 83–4, 284, 285
General Medical Council (UK) 69–70
General Registry Office (GRO, UK) 176, 184–5
genetics 92, 102, 116, 139
Gérando, Joseph Marie de 41–2
germ theory 131, 132–3, 136, 138–9
Germany 4, 56, 59–60
Hanover 63–5, 66–7
legislation 58–9, 62–4, 67–8, 71
medicine, regulation of 62–4, 67–8, 70
Prussia 59–60, 65–7, 68
Goldfinch, Henry 285
Goodenough, James Graham 269–71, 273–5, 285–6
Goodman, Geoffrey 279
Grandville, J. J., Un autre monde 135
Great Britain see United Kingdom (UK)
Greg, W. R. 5
Hang Zhiying 262, 263
Hanover 63–5, 66–7
health 79–80, 116–17, 139, 185–7, 298–9
as moral economy 297–301, 307–9
national 5, 185–7
reform 111–12, 130
heat 228, 229, 232–3
heredity 92, 102, 116, 139
Heron, David 185–6
historiography 142, 318–20
Horn, Ernst 59–60
hospitals 59–60, 61, 275–6, 278–9, 310–11
human sciences 35–6, 45
humanity 41–2, 45–6
hunger 136–7, 297–8, 320
Hutchinson, Woods 173, 174, 186
hygiene 127–31, 282
and civilisation 127, 129, 146n.18
and morality 136–7, 140–2
public 130–1, 140–1, 316, 317
sewerage 140–1, 315, 317
utopian 131–5, 139–44
see also dirt; excrement
hypochondria 304
hysteria 7, 59, 202, 279, 282, 284
hysterical tetanus 269–75, 281–6
illness see disease
impairment see disability/impairment
imperialism 138–9, 253–4
and cancer 178–9, 181–2, 184, 186–7
and Christianity 270–1, 287
and civilisational progress 18–19, 274, 275
and technology 237–8, 241–2
India 237–8, 241, 253
industrialisation 16, 57, 205–6, 313–14
insanity see mental illness
Institution nationale des sourds-muets 36–42
insurance 57, 58, 70–1
interiority 28, 30, 42
Ireland 310–11
Itard, Jean Marc Gaspard 40–1, 42
Koch, Robert 131
Kohlrausch, Heinrich 59–60
Kolnai, Aurel 142
König, Friedrich Franz 56
laboratory medicine 100, 108
labour see work
Lawrence, D. H., Lady Chatterley’s Lover 313–15
legislation
child welfare 79–80, 84
medical negligence 58–9, 63, 67–9
medical research 60–1
and morality 33–4
Poor Laws (UK) 79, 84–5, 87–8, 306–7, 308–9
Lezay-Marnésia, Adrien 34
liability 57, 58, 71
litigation 57, 58–60, 63
Locke, John 84–5
MacGregor, Sir William 181–2
Marx, Karl 304
materiality 136–8, 154, 225
Mathews, William 203
medical negligence 56–72
definitions of 57–8, 58–9
and innovation 60–1
investigations 62, 64–7
legislation 58–9, 63, 67–9
litigation 58–60, 63
and status of doctors 61–2
medicine
and accountability 56–8, 69–72
biomedicine 108, 217–18, 222–3, 232–3
Chinese 255–6
diagnosis 222, 271–2, 273–4, 281–6
‘eclectic’ 109–10
education 221, 275–7
laboratory 100, 108
and modernity 9, 18–19, 101, 218–20
naval 272–7, 282
psychiatry 197–8, 200, 202–3
psychology 165–6, 282–4
quackery 17–18, 250–1
regulation 61–2, 62–4, 67–70, 108
Mellars, Henry 313, 315–19
mental illness 29, 42, 92–3, 197–8, 282–3, 287
and civilisation 202–3, 278
hysteria 7, 59, 202, 279, 282, 284
hysterical tetanus 269–75, 281–6
neurasthenia 1–3, 7–8, 158–9, 161–2
psychiatry 197–8, 200, 202–3
of sailors 275–9
stress 4–5, 28, 299, 301–6, 321
treatment of 29, 32, 43–4, 49n.19, 59
Messer, Adam Brunton 269–85
education 275–7
‘hysterical tetanus’, diagnosis of 269–75, 281–6
poison, investigation of 279–81
rationalism of 274–5
metaphors 14–15, 161–2, 182–5
in Ayurveda 235–41
of the body 163–4, 183, 187
of fatigue 14, 161
modern 4, 17, 235–8
technological 4, 229, 235–8, 239–40
metaphysics 37, 38
miasma theory 131, 132–3
microbes 131, 132, 136
middle class see class, middle class
mind, theories of 30, 31, 41–2, 233
missionaries 270–1, 274, 277–8
modernity/modernities
and the body 7, 17, 22n.25, 144
Chinese 249, 254–5
and cultural hybridity 263–4
definitions of 5–6, 21n.20
and dirt 144–5
imperial 240–2
metaphors of 17, 235–8
multiple 218–19, 240–2, 264–5
versus nature 159–60
subjectivity 28–30
and suicide 16, 194–7, 200–1, 209–10
and ‘traditional’ medicine 219–20, 222–3
Moi (ego) 41, 47
moral economy 297–301, 307–9, 319–21
moral shock 29–32, 43–7
morality 27–9, 33–4, 136–7, 140–2, 282
Morris, William, News from Nowhere 129, 139–44
Morselli, Enrico 15–16, 201–3, 207
mortality rates 61, 134, 176–7, 196–7
muteness 36–8
nations 5, 42, 183–4, 185–7
natural selection 15–16, 199–200, 202
nature 37–9, 159–60, 224–5
negligence see medical negligence
Neisser, Albert 61
nervous system 20n.2, 161, 231, 234, 236, 281, 282–3
neurasthenia 1–3, 7–8, 158–9, 161–2
neurodiversity movement 116–18
neurological conditions 101, 115–18
newspapers 251, 253–4, 256–8, 259
Nordau, Max, Degeneration 13
normality 81–2, 90–1
nuisances 312–13
nuisances inspectors 312, 315–19
objectivity 302, 321
Oettingen, Alexander von 203, 207–8
orphans 84–5, 89
overwork 299, 302–3, 304–5
pain 137, 279, 296, 300, 305, 310–11
Papua New Guinea (British New Guinea) 182
parents/parenting 83, 85–8, 92–3
passion 43–7, 135, 138, 143
past time 141, 142
Pasteur, Louis 131, 133
patent medicines see Dr. Williams’ Pink Pills
pathology
cellular 183
of civilisation 201–3
definitions of 80–1
of difference 90–3
of fatigue 154, 158–9, 309–10
of neurodiversity 114
see also disease
Pearl, HMS 269–70, 275
Petit, Antoine 27–8, 47n.4
philanthropy 78–9, 81–8, 89–93
Phrenological Depot (New York) 103, 110
Phrenological Journal 103
Phrenologist, The (journal) 103
phrenology 99–118, 106, 107
development of 99–102
and eugenics 102, 114, 117
and neurodiversity 113–18
‘practical’ 100–1, 102, 104–7
scientificity 107–8
for self-improvement 100–1, 102, 104–7
physiognomy 123n.94
physiograms 231–2, 234, 235, 236
physiology 112, 164–5, 222–3, 231
Ayurvedic 227–32, 233–5
Pinel, Philippe 29, 32, 40, 45
poison 251–2, 269, 271–3, 276, 277, 279–81, 287
Poor Laws (UK) 79, 84–5, 87–8, 306–7, 308–9
Poor Law Crusade 80
Poore, George 158, 161
poverty 85, 186, 304, 306–11
pregnancy 306–7, 308–9
prejudice see discrimination
progress
civilisational 18–19, 274, 275
‘dark side’ 13, 34
of enlightenment 34, 35, 42
and imperialism 18–19, 274, 275
metaphors of 4
and rationality 283
of reason 32–3, 274
and risk 6–7
Prussia 59–60, 65–7, 68
psychiatry 197–8, 200, 202–3
psychology 165–6, 282–4
public health 299
information 103, 115–16
inspections 312–18
reform 130–1, 140–1
sanitation 140–1, 315–17
quackery 17–18, 250–1
race 2, 178–82, 267n.34, 278
racism 2, 102, 114, 138–9, 237
railway 5, 161, 228, 229, 237
rationality 32–3, 36, 49n.19, 274
Ray, Binodbihari 220–3, 224–9
Ayurvedic physiology 227–35
Chikitshak (‘Physician’) 221, 223, 225–6
cosmological works 220–1, 238–41
metaphors, use of 235–41
Podyo Ayurbbed Siksha (‘Medical Educational Verses’) 220, 227–8
reform
health 111–12, 130
public health 130–1, 140–1
social 104, 108–13, 317–18
religion
and Ayurveda 230, 231
Christianity 103, 107, 270–1, 274, 275, 287
missionaries 270–1, 274, 277–8
and phrenology 107
Renner, W. 181–2
research
experimentation 223–4, 238, 281, 284–5
laboratory medicine 100, 108
legislation for 60–1
mental illness 275–6
suicide 201–3
responsibility 57, 84, 85
rest 160
revolution see French Revolution
rhythms, natural 160–1
Richardson, Benjamin Ward 8, 132, 305
rights 298–9, 310
risk 6–7, 57–8, 61–2, 69–72
Roederer, Pierre Louis 38–9
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 11, 78, 80, 85
Royal Naval Hospital Haslar (UK) 275–6
Royal Navy (UK) 276–7
Rudolf, Edward 82, 86, 87
rural communities 204
Saelan, Thiodolf 197–8, 199, 201
sanitary inspectors 312, 313, 315–19
sanitation 140–1, 315–17
Santa Cruz Islands 269–70, 277, 278–80
scurvy 282
self-help 12, 100–1, 102, 103, 104–7
selfhood see subjectivity
Sengupta, Gopalchandra 235
Sengupta, Nagendranath 234
septicaemia 280
sewerage 140–1, 315, 317
sex/sexuality 138, 140, 143–4
sexual abuse/violence 86, 93
sexually transmitted disease 61
Seyle, Hans 302–3, 304
Shanghai 248, 264–5, 265n.4
shock 27–8, 40–1, 47
moral 29–32, 43–7
therapeutic 29, 32, 43–4
Sicard, Roch Ambroise 36–9, 40
Sierra Leone 181–2
sign language 36–7
slavery 138, 182
Smiles, Samuel, Self-Help 12
Snellman, Johan Wilhelm 196–7
Society of the Observers of Man 35–6, 39–40
Sontag, Susan, Illness as Metaphor 14–15
South Africa 253
South America 253–4
South Pacific 269–70, 272, 274–80, 287
Spurzheim, Johann Gaspar 102
statistical analysis 196–7, 201, 211n.13
stress 4–5, 28, 299, 301–6, 321
strychnine 272, 280
subjectivity 46–7, 233, 302, 319, 321
and education 40–1
embodied 19, 321
and fatigue 165–6
interiority 28, 30, 42
modern 28–30
suffering, expression of 296, 305, 307–8, 321
suicide 15–16, 194–210, 206t
civilisation, consequence of 201–3
as crime or sin 195–6
and degeneration 199–200
determinist model of 198, 202, 207–8
medical model of 197–8, 213n.42
modernity, consequence of 16, 194–5, 196–7, 200–1, 209–10
research 201–3
social model of 198–9, 204–5, 206–7
universality of 208–10
and urbanisation 16, 204, 213n.49
superstition 277–80, 283, 287
surgeons/surgery 61, 65–6
syphilis 61
Tallien, Jean-Lambert 33
taxonomy 105, 114, 117
technology
communications 7, 228, 229, 237
and imperialism 237–8, 241–2
metaphors 4, 229, 235–8, 239–40
telegraph 7, 228, 229, 237
terror 32–3, 34, 37, 39
tetanus 269–70, 271–3, 281–6
thermodynamics 154, 156–9, 163–4
Thiele, Louise 59–60
Thompson, E. P. 297–8, 320
toilets 315, 317
‘traditional’ medicine 16–17, 217–20, 222–3, 255–6
see also Ayurveda
Traill, Henry Duff 153–4
transport 5, 7, 22n.26, 161, 228, 229, 237
Trotter, Thomas 276
tuberculosis 177–8
tyranny 32–3, 34
United Kingdom (UK)
cancer ‘epidemic’ 176–9
fatigue, anxiety about 155
fin-de-siècle period 183–4
General Registry Office (GRO, UK) 176, 184–5
London 103, 129–30, 141
medicine, regulation of 69–70
phrenology in 102, 104, 108, 110
Poor Laws 79, 84–5, 87–8, 306–7, 308–9
public hygiene 130–1, 140–1
Royal Naval Hospital Haslar 275–6
Royal Navy 276–7
Waifs and Strays Society 78, 81–7, 89–93
United States of America (USA) 1–3, 102, 103, 107–8, 141, 252
upper class 102
urbanisation 11–12, 129–31, 204, 213n.49
see also cities
utopias 131–45
hygienic 131–2, 139–45
and sex/sexuality 138, 140, 143–4
vaccination 108, 116
Verne, Jules, Les Cinq cents millions de la Bégum 129, 131–5, 138, 139, 143
Victor (the ‘wild boy’) 39–42
Virchow, Rudolph 60–1
Wagner, Adolph 203, 207–8
Waifs and Strays Society (UK) 78, 81–7, 89–93
water 32, 131, 316, 317
welfare state 57, 71
Wells, Samuel 103, 105
Westcott, William Wynn 203
Westerlund, Fredrik Wilhelm 16, 194, 195, 201, 203, 204–9
Westernisation 249, 254–5, 263
‘wild’ children 39–42
Wilde, Oscar, The Picture of Dorian Gray 167
Williams, W. Roger 182
women
in advertisements 248–9, 260–4, 262
and disease 47n.4
doctors 109–13
girls 83–4
medical care of 111–12
and mental illness 29
philanthropic 79
poor 306–11
and technology 7
work 21n.16, 138, 154, 164, 165, 167–8
of children 84, 87
overwork 158, 302–3, 304–5
workhouses 90–1, 93, 306, 309, 320
working class see class, working class
Zhiying, Hang 262, 263

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Progress and pathology

Medicine and culture in the nineteenth century

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