Figures
in Migrants shaping Europe, past and present

Figures

1.1 Astrolabe, Belvidere Daily Republican, March 21, 1930, Adler Planetarium Collections. 20
1.2 Astrolabe, Muhammad ibn al-Fattuhal-Khama’iri, 1236–37, Adler Planetarium Collections, M-35. 21
1.3 Astrolabe, Georg Hartmann, Nuremberg, Germany, 1540, Adler Planetarium Collections, M-22. 22
1.4 Adler Planetarium display. Fox (1935), Adler Planetarium Library. 25
1.5 “Astronomy in Culture” exhibition, Adler Planetarium. 29
1.6 Astrolabe, Muhammad ibn al-Fattuhal-Khama’iri, Adler Planetarium Collections M-35; with woodcuts, “New World Climax,” Barthélémy Toguo (2011), in “In Transit: Arts & Migration Around Europe” installation, Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University, 2018. Photo: Christopher Helms, with permission from Duke University/Nasher Museum of Art. 33
1.7 “Science, Faith, and the Heavens,” Adler Planetarium digital exhibition, April 2017, Adler Planetarium/Google Arts & Culture. The exhibition is accessible through https://artsandculture.google.com/partner/adler-planetarium (accessed July 31, 2021). 34
Part II frontispiece: Vicente Carducho, Expulsion of the Moriscos, c. 1627. Public domain. Drawing, Museo del Prado, Madrid. 41
2.1 Pere Oromig, Embarque de los moriscos del Grau de Valencia, 1612. Painting, Valencia, Fundación Bancaja, permanent collection. Public domain. 46
2.2 Vicent Mestre, La Expulsión en el Puerto de Denia. 1613. Public domain. Painting, Valencia, Fundación Bancaja, permanent collection. Public domain. 48
Part III frontispiece: Leonardo da Vinci, “A deluge,” c. 1517–18. Black chalk, pen and ink, wash. 16.2 × 20.3 cm. Public Domain: Google Art Project, inv. no. 912380. 77
4.1 al-Idrīsī's world map, BNF MS Arabe 2221, fol. 3v–4r. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr. 91
4.2 Pierfrancesco Giambullari, world map, Del sito, fórma, & misúre déllo Inférno di Dante, 1544. Image courtesy of Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington. 92
5.1 Laura Riccioli, “Gli uomini rondine” from the collection Anche Superman era un rifugiato (Edizione Piemme, 2018). © Laura Riccioli. Courtesy of the artist. 101
5.2 Mariachiara di Giorgio, “I posti che siamo” from the collection Anche Superman era un rifugiato (Edizione Piemme, 2018). © Mariachiara di Giorgio. Courtesy of the artist. 102
5.3 Darrin Zammit Lupi, “Rescue at Sea 2” from the series On Board the Aquarius, December 2017. Courtesy of the Rubenstein Library, Duke University. 103
5.4 Abdalla Al Omari, “The Queue” from The Vulnerability Series (2017). © Abdalla Al Omari. Courtesy of the artist. 104
5.5–6 Giuseppe Palumbo, pages from “Anche Superman era un rifugiato” in the collection Anche Superman era un rifugiato (Edizione Piemme, 2018). © Giuseppe Palumbo. Courtesy of the artist. 105–106
6.1a Mimmo Paladino, Porta di Lampedusa, porta d’Europa (Gateway to Lampedusa, Gateway to Europe), 2008. View from Lampedusa (facing shore). Terracotta and iron, 196 ⅝ (h) × 149 ⅝ × 14 ¼ in. (498 × 380 × 36 cm). Permanent installation on the island of Lampedusa. Photo: Alessandro Cerino. © Mimmo Paladino. Courtesy of the artist. 132
6.1b Mimmo Paladino, Porta di Lampedusa, porta d’Europa (Gateway to Lampedusa, Gateway to Europe), 2008. View from shore (facing Lampedusa, to the right). Terracotta and iron, 196 ⅝ (h) × 149 ⅝ × 14 ¼ in. (498 × 380 × 36 cm). Permanent installation on the island of Lampedusa. Photo: Franco Guardascione. © Mimmo Paladino. Courtesy of the artist. Reproduced with photographer's permission. 132
6.2 Arabella Pio, Porta d’Europa, 2016. Artistic intervention in Mimmo Paladino's Porta di Lampedusa, porta d’Europa (2008), October 5, 2016. Temporary installation. Collection of the artist. Photo: Arabella Pio. © Arabella Pio. Courtesy of the artist. 134
6.3a–c Screenshots of Willie Peyote, “Io non sono razzista ma...” (“I’m not racist but...”), music video, 2016. Colour, 3:56. Directed by Stefano Carena. From top to bottom, left to right, the sites are Porta d’Europa (Lampedusa), the synagogue of Turin, and Porta Palazzo (Turin) 140–141
6.4 Mimmo Paladino, Porta di Lampedusa, porta d’Europa (Gateway to Lampedusa, Gateway to Europe), 2008. Side view. Terracotta and iron, 196 ⅝ × 149 ⅝ × 14 ¼ in. (498 × 380 × 36 cm). Screenshot from video posted to YouTube by Luca Urbinati, “Porta d’Europa e bandiera della Pace –Lampedusa,” May 22, 2017: www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7JeRTgXstM (accessed February 16, 2022). 143
6.5a Mimmo Paladino, Sud (South), 1984. Bronze, 236 ¼ (h) × 98 ½ × 59 in. (600 × 250 × 150 cm). Collection: Sherry and Joel Mallin, New York. Photo: Unknown. © Mimmo Paladino. Courtesy of the artist. 147
6.5b Mimmo Paladino, Sud (South), 1984. Bronze, 236 ¼ (h) × 98 ½ × 59 in. (600 × 250 × 150 cm). Collection: Sherry and Joel Mallin, New York. Photo: Unknown. © Mimmo Paladino. Courtesy of the artist. 148
6.6 Mimmo Paladino, Menelik, 1978. Installation at the Galleria Franco Toselli, Milan. Mixed media on canvas, 78 ¾ × 118 ⅛ in. (200 × 300 cm). Private collection, Milan. Photo: Salvatore Licitra. © Mimmo Paladino. Courtesy of the artist. 149
6.7 Arabella Pio, detail of Porta d’Europa, intervention in Mimmo Paladino's Porta di Lampedusa, porta d’Europa (2008), October 5, 2016. Photo: Arabella Pio. © Arabella Pio. Courtesy of the artist. 155
6.8a Street art by VIA, Palermo, July 2018. The text reads: “The government kills in the summer too. 630 dead in the Mediterranean in June ’18 alone.” Photo: Tenley Bick. 157
6.8b Street art by VIA, Palermo, July 2018. The text reads: “Speak out against racism!” Photo: Tenley Bick. 158
6.9 Jem Perucchini, Axum, 2020. Oil on linen, 55 × 43 in. (140 × 110 cm). Collection: Daniele and Karen Rigamonti. © Jem Perucchini. Courtesy of the artist. 161
Part IV frontispiece: Joachim Patinir, Rest during Flight to Egypt, 1518–20. Painting. Public Domain. Madrid, Museo del Prado, detail. Public domain. 167
7.1 Jean de Wavrin, Anciennes Chroniques d’Angleterre, fifteenth-century manuscript illumination. Paris, BNF f.fr. 76, 168v, detail. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr. 172
7.2 Great Wall securing road to British customs in the port, Calais, October 2017. Photo: Eric Leleu. 174
7.3 Abraham Cresques, Atlas Catalan, c. 1375, Paris, BNF, f.esp. 30, fol. 3, detail. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr 175
7.4 Georg Braun et al., Civitates Orbis Terrarvm. [Coloniae Agrippinae: apud Petrum à Brachel, sumptibus auctorum, 1612–18] Map. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/item/2008627031/ (accessed February 16, 2022). 176
7.5 Copy of fifteenth-century lock on City Hall Front Gate, Mons, Belgium. Wikimedia Commons image. Photo: Ad Meskens. 178
7.6 Colard Mansion, De la Clef et de la serrure, 1482, Paris, BNF Rés. Gr-Yc-32, p. 23, detail. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr 178
7.7 Jean Froissart, Chroniques, c. 1415, manuscript illumination, Paris, BNF f.fr. 2663, fol. 164v. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr 181
7.8 Jean Froissart, Chroniques, c. 1400, manuscript illumination, the Hague, KB, ms. 72. A 25, fol. 1. Courtesy of Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 183
8.1 Ruminghem Chinese cemetery, 2019. Photo: Eric Leleu. 215
8.2 Ruminghem Chinese cemetery, July 2019. Photo: Eric Leleu. 216
8.3 Calais, France, 2017. Photo: Eric Leleu. 216
8.4 Fréthun, France, October 2017. Photo: Eric Leleu. 217
8.5 Calais, France, June 2017. The Great Wall of Calais. Photo: Eric Leleu. 217
8.6 Calais, France, June 2017. A Bansky Graffiti, at the exit of the former “Jungle” of Calais. Photo: Eric Leleu. 218
8.7 Grande-Synthe, France, July 2017. Photo: Eric Leleu. 218
8.8 Calais, France, January 2018. Photo: Eric Leleu. 219
8.9 Grande-Synthe, France, July 2017. Photo: Eric Leleu. 219
8.10 K., twenty-five years old, Calais, France, January 2018. Photo: Eric Leleu. 220
9.1 Muhammad ibn al-Fattuh al-Khama’iri, Astrolabe, 1236–37, Adler Planetarium, M-35. 231
9.2 Philippe Danfrie, Jehan Moreau, Astrolabe, 1584 (designed) and 1622 (printed). Wood, paper, brass. Adler Planetarium, W-98a. 232
9.3 Barthélémy Toguo, The New World Climax, performance, 2011. Courtesy of LeLong Gallery, Paris. 234
9.4 Barthélémy Toguo, The New World Climax – Guantanamo Republic, 2011. Woodcut on paper. Edition 1/1. Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University 2014.25.1. © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris. 235
9.5 Barthélémy Toguo, The New World Climax – Illegal, 2011. Woodcut on paper. Edition 1/1. Gift of Tom and Elizabeth Caine, 2014.25.3. © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris. 236
9.6–23 Jacques Callot, Les Grandes misères de la guerre / The Miseries of War, 1633, Etchings on paper. Public domain. Courtesy of The Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr. 238–243
9.24–26 Pedro Lasch, Venice Biennale Sing Along or Karaoke Anthem, 2015, Video (color, sound). Courtesy of the Artist. 245–246
9.27–30 Jacques Callot Les Bohémiens / The Bohemians, seventeenth-century. Etching on paper, The Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Courtesy of gallica.bnf.fr. 247–248
9.31 Annette Messager, Two Replicants Together / 2 répliquants ensemble, 2006, Fabric, 66 7/8 × 39 3/8 × 15 3/4 in. (170 × 100 × 40 cm) Courtesy of the artist and Marian Goodman Gallery, New York/London/Paris. © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris 250
9.32–33 Anonymous, c. 1959, painting of the Atlas Catalan (c. 1375). Collection of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. Abraham Cresques, 1325–87, Bibliothèque nationale de France. Mapamondi. [Barcelona: S.N. 1959]. www.loc.gov/item/2010587630/ (accessed April 6, 2022). 251–252
10.1 Style frame from video animation. Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 255
10.2 Migration routes in North Africa. Source: https://elpais.com/elpais/2014/02/16/media/1392579160_005825.html (accessed April 6, 2022). 256
10.3 Ceuta and Melilla's border wall. Fuente: Ministerio del Interior. https://elpais.com/elpais/2014/03/07/media/1394187503_458548.html (accessed April 6, 2022). 257
10.4 Border wall between Morocco and Spain. Photo: Jesús Blasco de Avellaneda, 2014. 258
10.5 “Cornered” Photo: Robert Zimmerman, 2018. 259
10.6 Style frame from video animation. Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 260
10.7 “Cornered” Close-up of wooden structure and video projection. Photo: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 261
10.8 Style frame from video animation. Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 262
10.9 “Cornered” Photo: Robert Zimmerman, 2018. Salvatella, 2018. 263
10.10 “Cornered” Photo: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 263
10.11 Artistic assistant Lexi Bateman. Photo: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 265
10.12 Geodesic dome created by Dimitri Titov. Photo: Lexi Bass, 2018. 265
10.13 Projection tests on a mockup geodesic mode. Photo: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2017. 266
10.14 Illustration to test projection on geodesic mode. Created by Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2017. 267
10.15 Projection tests on a mockup geodesic mode. Photo: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2017. 267
10.16 Screenshot of graphic programming environment software Isadora, from Troikatronix. 268
10.17 Sketch of wooden door. Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 269
10.18 Wooden structure. Photo: Robert Zimmerman, 2018. 270
10.19–21 Multiple alterations of the designs. Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2017–18. 271–273
10.22–24 Test engravings, construction, and set-up of the wooden structure. Photos: Robert Zimmerman. 2018. 274–276
10.25 Opening Day at the Rubenstein Arts Center, Durham, NC. Photo: Robert Zimmerman, 2018. 277
10.26–27 Watercolors in water – tests for video projection. Filming dancer Tristan Park. Photos: Raquel Salvatella de Prada, 2018. 278
10.28 Style frames from video animation. Raquel Salvatella de Prada. 2018. 279
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Migrants shaping Europe, past and present

Multilingual literatures, arts, and cultures

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