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Index
in In the borderland between song and speech

Index

When names and concepts that occur in the running text also appear in footnotes, references to the latter have been omitted. The names of this book’s authors have not been indexed, nor have – with some exceptions – names and concepts that occur in tables and example texts. Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

Àbáw-gàw 204, 207n2
aboriginal music (Australia) 7, 283
see also Dyirbal
Addo, Akosua 287
Ahtna (language) 130
Akha (language) 1, 13, 1516, 204225, 249251, 256, 258259, 261, 266, 269, 286
Alamblak (Papua New Guinea) 285
Alexander, Evelyn 125n3, 161, 182
Amis (Ami, Taiwan) 15, 256
amplitude 18, 233234, 242246, 253
Amy de la Bretèque, Estelle 7n18
anapest 201
Apache (language) 125
appoggiatura 239
Asai, Susuma 15
Asano, Rie 288
Atayal (language) 189, 195
Athabascan (language family) 1, 1213, 1516, 123188, 249252, 256, 258259, 261, 263264, 266267, 272273, 276, 284
Audacity (software) 207, 298299
Austroasiatic (language family) 1, 12, 23, 254n5
Austronesian (language family) 1, 189, 280
Banti, Giorgio 5, 252n4, 264n28
Barnhardt, Carol 126n8
Barwick, Linda 7, 251n2, 283, 284n72
Baudhuin, R. F. 15n38
Beijing opera 261, 264
Bengtsson, Ingmar 18n42
Bettis, Julius 147152
Bialystok, Ellen 127
bilingualism 126127
binary form 136, 138139, 143, 165166, 187, 235, 244, 256, 258, 260, 282
Birch, Bruce 7n19
Blacking, John 276
Boersma, Paul 290
boundary tone 25, 3135, 3739, 42, 44, 4648, 53, 115, 254, 258
Brabec de Mori, Bernd 2n2, 279n56
Bracknell, Clint 7n19
Brown, Steven 2n3, 254, 279, 280n59, 280n6163, 281, 282n67
building block 138, 143, 149, 155, 157, 159, 165166
Bunun (language) 15
Burenhult, Niclas 1n1, 7n18, 15, 251n3
call-and-response 3942, 256257
canonic imitation (Seediq vocal genre) 13, 189203, 249, 286n83
cantometrics 280
Cantonese opera 261, 266, 270
Cantonese pop songs 270
CantoScore 280, 283
Carlo, Norman 16, 125n3, 172174, 175, 176184
cèem ̀əəy (melody) 79
Chafe, Wallace 35n19
Charlie, Chief 142, 157n30, 177
Charlie, Dolo 142
Charlie, Geraldine 125n3, 126, 134, 144, 147, 150, 152, 154, 161, 165, 167168, 171, 187
Charlie, Moses 123, 142, 157n30, 177
Charlie, Neal 124, 125n3, 126, 134137, 139, 144, 152, 154, 161, 165, 171, 173n41
Charlie, Robert 123124, 137, 177178
Charlie, Susie 125n3, 134n19
ch’edzes ch’elik (‘dance songs’, Athabascan vocal genre) 130, 132133, 148, 160188, 252, 261, 272, 276
Cheng, Shui-Cheng 15n39
Chickalusion, Chief Simeon 158n31
children’s game songs 5, 287288
Chow, Ivan 254
Chungyuan (village) 189
Ci’uli (language) 189
communicative competence 287
comparative musicology 278281
comparative studies 281283
composition 23, 9
in Athabascan music 13, 123, 125, 130, 134, 140, 144, 157, 163, 167168, 171174, 176177, 179188, 228, 251, 264
Compton, Carol J. 260n14
continuum from speech to song 3, 56, 2829, 272273, 280281, 289
contraction (of line) 84, 86, 95, 120, 216, 224, 236, 258, 261, 267, 278, 282
Coray, Craig 132n17, 158n31
Coulter, Neil R. 285
Cox, Gordon 287n89
creakiness 6667, 71, 208
Cross, Ian 289
cross-cultural variation 278282
Crupi, Vanna Viola 271n43
cultural nationalism 286
Cwàa (Kammu dialect) 79
cymbals 97, 99
dancing 73, 7779, 123, 129130, 132133, 140, 160161, 164165, 167, 171, 173176, 178, 180, 182, 186, 272, 282285
Darwin, Charles 278
Dell, François 266, 270
Dene (Athabascan) 125n4
deskilling 287288
dirge 73
Dixon, Robert M. W. 264n28
downstep 244
dratakh ch’elik (‘mourning songs’, Athabascan vocal genre) 130134, 140160, 170173, 183, 186, 252, 261, 272, 276
drumming 129130, 132, 143, 160162, 165, 173, 261
duration
of morae 232
of phrases 233235, 242244
of syllables 26, 46, 56, 120121, 216, 262
of tone 5556, 255256, 273
of vowels 120121, 202, 266, 273
see also schwa
Dyirbal (Australia) 264
education see learning
ELAN (software) 17, 19, 295297
Emeneau, Murray B. 260
endangerment 1, 4, 125, 128, 170, 174, 227, 283288
Engelhardt, Jeffers 7n18
Engles, David 125n3
Engstrand, Lennart 8n21
Evans, Nicholas 7n19
evolution 2, 273, 278283
Évrard, Olivier 20n1
Ewald, Otto 254n5
ex tempore 4, 186, 203
Fabb, Nigel 9, 255n9, 260n13
Fairbanks, Alaska 123, 130, 161162, 174
Fall, James A. 12n30, 15n37, 158n31
farming year 3536, 43n22, 276
Fast, Phyllis 128n11
Feld, Steven 4, 5n1314, 7, 261n19, 288
filler syllable 84, 210, 224, 255, 266267
see also padding syllable
final formula 10, 53, 59, 64, 77, 8485, 104, 120121, 162, 219, 225, 249, 252, 262263, 267, 272, 282
Finnegan, Ruth 3, 9
folk narrative 31, 34n18, 135, 165
form 1011, 55, 143, 180, 182183, 185, 245, 256258, 282
strophic 62, 67, 71, 75, 82, 95, 132, 159160, 165166, 187, 256, 272
syllabic 53, 5556, 62, 104, 117, 179, 256
Fox, Aaron A. 5, 288
Frank, Carlos 173n41
Frisbie, Charlotte J. 158159
fundamental frequency (F0) 18, 26, 66, 100, 239, 290
see also pitch
Fürniss, Susanne 276
Giannattasio, Francesco 5, 252n4, 264n28
Gillan, Matt 228n3
glottal constriction 143
glottal pulse 131, 144, 148149, 152
glottal stop 24, 154, 165
Gluban (Chinliu, village) 191, 199
gong 97, 99
Grant, Catherine 285, 286n84
Gushiken, Kyoko 237n8, 238
Gussenhoven, Carlos 44n25
Gwich’in (language) 125126, 128129, 131
haiku (Japanese poem) 9n27
Hani (nationality) 204, 206
Hayton, Allan 125n3, 134n19
Herzog, George 137
Hinton, Leanne 170n40, 174
Hmong (Vietnam) 285
Honigmann, John J. 129n13
House, David 8n21, 24n7, 27n12, 31n15, 34n18, 94n35
hrl̀ɨɨ (Kammu vocal genre) 5563, 71, 100, 104, 121, 252, 266n30, 273
hrwə̀ (Kammu vocal genre) 6468
Hsu, Tsang-Houei 15n39
húuwə̀ (Kammu vocal genre) 6872, 121
iambs 256, 266, 273
Akha 205, 221222, 224
Kammu 75, 78, 80, 82, 84, 8687, 91, 9596
Seediq 200, 203
Ikuta, Hiroko 284
improvisation 2, 4, 10, 13, 120, 185186, 189, 202
Ingram, Catherine 285, 286n81
initial formula 10, 50, 54, 56, 5960, 64, 71, 74, 77, 8485, 93, 96, 104, 106, 117118, 120121, 224225, 262263, 267, 272273, 282
intonation (in speech) 11, 14, 250, 252254, 258, 270, 272273
Athabascan 131, 133, 136, 139, 186
Kammu 25, 2728, 47, 55, 62, 98, 110, 114115, 120121
Ryukyuan/Japanese 228, 232, 235, 244247
Seediq 192, 201202
intra-cultural variation 280
Iñupiaq (language) 284
Ishikawa Takuboku 229
isorhythm 138139, 145, 149, 151, 155, 158160, 165166, 168, 179, 187, 258
Jahai (Malaysia) 254n5
Jakobson, Roman 9
Japanese (language) 226236, 244247, 250, 252253, 259, 261
Japonic (language family) 1
Jetté, Jules 134n19
Jimmie, Peter 161
John, Peter 137138
Johnston, Thomas F. 128n12, 132n17, 140n26, 161n33
Jones, Eliza 125n3, 128n12, 134n19
Jordania, Joseph 281, 282n67
Kaluli (Papua New Guinea) 4
Kam (Dongzu, China) 285286
kàm à-thí-tháan (prayer, Kammu vocal genre) 4348, 98, 100
Kàm Mán 21
Kàm Ràw (Damrong Tayanin) 8, 16, 20, 21, 22n3, 23n6, 29, 3536, 3940, 43n22, 45, 47, 51, 55n26, 57, 59, 65, 68, 7374, 7880, 8687, 88n33, 89, 97, 99, 100102, 106, 111, 260n17, 276n45, 277n49, 283n71
Kamerling, Leonard 173n41
Kammu (language) 1, 3, 10, 1214, 16, 20122, 248253, 256, 258277, 283, 286
Kari, James 12n30, 15n37, 134n19, 148n27, 158n31
karuta (game) 226, 229230
Kawakami, Shin 231n6
khwtitl ch’elik (‘potlatch songs’, Athabascan vocal genre) 130, 140
Kirby, James 270271
Kneutgen, Johannes 278
Koch, Grace 264n28
Koyukon (language) 125126, 130131, 172174
Kulturkreis school 278
Kwὲɛn (Kammu dialect) 38, 68, 84
kymograph 18
Ladd, Robert 270271
lam (Laos) 260
Lao (language) 97
Lawson, Francesca 9
learning 2022, 55, 124131, 134, 141, 161, 170174, 176, 179180, 204, 287289
Leer, Jeff 164n37
lexical tones 1, 1012, 252254, 267, 269271
Akha 206, 210, 212213, 221222, 225
Athabascan 131133, 144
Kammu 23, 2526, 3233, 39, 42, 44, 4851, 5363, 6567, 71, 7486, 8996, 100118, 121
Lindell, Kristina 8, 23n6, 36n20, 39n21, 43n22, 43n24
Lintinger, Brenda W. 7n18
List, George 5, 7, 17n40, 271, 273
litany 42, 48, 53, 75, 82, 117, 202, 224, 256, 263
Little Peter 124, 142
Loh, I-to 189n1, 195n34, 256, 257n11, 264n27
Lomax, Alan, 255, 256n10, 263, 280
lɔ̀ɔŋ (narrative, Kammu vocal genre) 3142, 50, 100
Lord, Albert 3
Lovick, Olga 131n16
Lü (language) 97
Lubi Mahung 191
lullaby 68, 277278, 282283
Madison, Curt 173n41
Mah Meri (Malaysia), 254n5
Maori (New Zeeland) 5
Marett, Allan 7n1819, 283, 284n72
Marsh, Kathryn 287
Mehr, Samuel A. 282n69, 283n70
melodic contour 27, 8990, 110111, 115, 120121, 132, 138, 162, 254
see also phrase, musical
melodic formula 53, 68, 84, 112, 206, 267, 278
melodic motif 50, 64, 133, 165, 182, 186
melodic movement 11, 34, 38, 99, 112, 121, 182, 250, 252253, 269, 271272
melodic pattern 246, 253, 282
melody 3, 56, 10, 28, 249, 252254, 261, 270273, 277278, 283
Akha 213, 218, 226
Athabascan 133, 138, 140, 144, 149, 157, 164, 176177
Kammu 47, 49, 69, 73, 77, 79, 84, 95, 113116, 118, 120
Ryukyuan/Japanese 228, 242, 247
Seediq 191
melody centration 11, 54, 82, 85, 94, 96, 112, 118121, 225, 253, 269, 282
Melodyne (software) 16, 19, 3435, 60, 64, 136, 206216, 218223, 228, 231233, 237238, 240241, 245, 271, 290, 294295, 299
Merriam, Alan P. 279
Merritt, Emily 280n6162, 281n64
metre 9, 53, 64, 120121, 133, 139, 192, 200203, 230231, 235, 246, 256, 260262, 266, 273
Microsoft Excel (software) 27
Microsoft PowerPoint (software) 27
Microsoft Word (software) 85
Miller, Terry E. 260n14
Minks, Amanda 287
Minto (village) 16, 123, 126, 129142, 144, 147148, 150, 152, 153, 157, 160162, 165, 167168, 170174, 182183, 185, 252, 284
Minto Dance and Song Group 129, 160161, 174, 182, 284
Minto-Nenana (Tanana dialect) 130134, 141
Mischler, Craig 129n13
Miskitu (Nicaragua) 287
Mithen, Steven 2n3
Mithun, Marianne 126n7
Moberg, Carl-Allan 278
Mon-Khmer (language group) 2324
mono-melodic principle 4, 8, 277278
mora 228242, 244247
mora-timing 234, 247
Morey, Stephen 271n43
Mulder, Jean 264n25
musicolinguistics 7, 288
Musilanguage 281
narratives 3146
antithesis 100, 260, 287
thematic episode 3538, 100101, 110, 115, 254
thematics 23, 31
topic 3537
see also folk narratives
nasal, moraic 232, 237239, 241, 244245
Navajo (language) 125, 158
Nelson, Richard K. 135n20, 135n22
Nenana (village) 147, 150, 161163
Nettl, Bruno 149n29, 183n43
Nguyen Van Huyen 260
number notation 17, 50, 97, 101102, 106, 110111, 297
Ó Briain, Lonán 285
octave doubling 182
Oesch, Hans 263264, 265n29
Ogawa, Takuji 15
O’Keeffe, Isabel 7n19, 264n25
Okinawa 1, 227, 237
Olson, Gordon 161
Onna (village) 227
Onna Nabii 226, 237240
ɔ̀ɔc (‘wassail’, Kammu vocal genre) 4954, 254
Ostler, Nicolas 7n18
Pâbûjî, Epic of 266
padding syllable 86, 266267
see also filler syllable
parallelism 6, 29, 46, 50, 55, 88, 100, 121, 133, 157, 159, 192, 200, 202, 256, 260
parlando rubato 255
Paskvan, Susan 125n3
Patel, Aniruddh 2n4, 254, 288
Pearce, Tony Scott 12n30, 15n37, 132n17, 161162, 165, 173n41
Peking drumsong 261
performance template 910, 12, 13, 17, 23, 31, 84, 112, 120121, 125, 183186, 191, 225, 232, 248289
Akha 224245
Athabascan 159160, 187188
Kammu 4142, 48, 5354, 6263, 67, 7172, 7576, 8283, 9596, 117118
parameters of 10, 27, 249286
Ryukyuan/Japanese 235236, 244
Seediq 202203
Pete, Shem 158n31
Peter, Hishinlai’ 134n19
phrase 17, 64, 100, 148, 228
boundary 32, 39, 115, 131, 254
see also boundary tone
ending of 89, 105, 111, 162, 164, 213
linguistic 11, 131, 168, 192, 206
musical 11, 58, 85, 87, 8995, 100, 105, 111, 116, 168, 178179, 206, 237, 239, 247, 258, 263
pairing of 50, 100, 105, 110, 121, 207208, 215, 258259
prolongation of 80, 120, 155
prosodic 3233, 39, 44, 4748, 100, 105, 110, 121, 131, 206, 258, 263
repetition of 55, 191192, 195, 256
see also phrasing
phrasing 5, 27, 40, 46, 110, 113117, 121, 256, 258262, 270, 272273, 278
musical 162, 273
prosodic 25, 4344
prosodic and musical combined 97, 101102, 105106, 111, 115, 121, 210, 215, 228235, 242243, 245, 256, 258, 263, 272273
Pian, Rulan Chao 277n52
pitch 46, 60, 131132, 134, 136138, 149, 162, 164, 230, 232, 258, 262263, 266, 269273, 279, 289290
accent 228, 247
and final syllable 44, 192
area 39, 41, 93, 95, 224
declination of 6566, 182, 247
fixed 29, 34, 40, 50, 120, 252, 273
level 40, 56, 64, 74, 76, 96, 121, 224, 269
region 26, 28, 63, 71
register 61, 245, 247, 253
relative to tone 58, 69, 77, 80, 84, 8993, 100101, 104106, 112, 116117, 120121, 210217, 219, 221, 253254, 269271
poetry 45, 9, 84, 100, 149, 152, 157, 172, 229, 260, 264, 266
form 58, 100, 138, 143, 155, 159, 256
line 56, 58, 120, 152, 192, 228242, 245, 260, 263
metre 120, 200, 261262, 266
syllable-counting 10, 14, 4950, 58, 100, 102, 228
techniques 29, 272
word-pairs 73, 258, 260
see also parallelism; phrasing
Pooley, Thomas M. 271n43
population genetics 279280
Poser, William J. 245
potlatch 123, 130, 132, 140142, 160161, 163, 167, 171174, 185, 252, 276, 284
pow-wow 161, 284
Praat (software) 17, 19, 27, 228, 271, 290294, 297
priest (Akha) 204, 207n2, 221
prolongation
of lines 64, 73, 80, 84, 8687, 95, 105, 117, 120, 149, 155, 157, 183, 200, 258261, 263, 278, 282
of syllables 2627, 56, 64, 67, 6971, 75, 87, 93, 9596, 105, 117, 121, 148149, 243, 258, 282
Proschan, Frank 79n30
Proto, Teresa 271
Proto-Southwestern Tai (language) 97
Pulu, Tupou 128n12
Puyuma (language) 15, 256
recontextualization 285288
re-creation 2, 4, 910, 159, 248, 251, 262, 267, 270, 287288
reduplication 23, 2629, 34, 46, 6471, 75, 7778, 82, 87, 93, 96, 105, 117118, 121, 264266, 273
repetition 6, 5556, 88, 100, 136, 148149, 155, 159160, 164, 182183, 191192, 200, 202, 207, 256, 259, 278
see also tone repetition
revitalization 1, 129, 160, 170, 174, 284, 286
rhyme 5, 29, 43, 46, 4850, 53, 55, 73, 88, 121, 192, 200, 202, 256
of a syllable 2627
rhyme-pair 88, 210, 221, 224225, 258, 266
rhythm 3, 5, 10, 228, 232, 234, 237, 244247, 249250, 252256, 263, 272273, 278279, 282283, 289
Akha 204, 225
Athabascan 130131, 133134, 136, 138, 149, 153, 155, 157, 162, 164, 168, 172, 182
Kammu 31, 34, 4041, 44, 47, 4950, 55, 58, 64, 77, 120121
Seediq 192, 195, 200202
rhythm pair 205, 221225
Rmcùal (village) 14, 20, 29, 49, 51, 55, 77
Rɔ̀ɔk (Kammu dialect area) 3940
Rooth, Anna Birgitta 13n31, 15, 135n20, 137n25, 161162
Russell, Garry 173n41
ryūka (Ryukyuan poem) 1314, 226228, 237247, 253
Ryukyu Islands 1314, 226247
Ryukyuan (language) 1, 16, 226247, 250, 253, 259
Rzeszutek, Tom 280n59, 280n6162, 281n64
Saensuk (village) 204207, 206, 209
sanshin (lute) 226, 228
Sanskrit 97
Savage, Patrick E. 279, 280n59, 280n6163, 281n6465
Schellenberg, Murray 2n5, 18n41, 271n43
Schimmelpenninck, Antoinet 259, 260n12, 261n18, 267, 277
Schippers, Huib 285n78, 286
Schöpf, Jürgen 7n18, 271n43
schwa (epenthetic vowel) 24, 4243, 48, 50, 54, 56, 63, 67, 71, 75, 78, 80, 82, 96, 118, 120, 164, 166, 191192, 200, 202, 265266, 273
duration 50, 54, 63, 67, 71, 75, 118, 120121, 202, 273
long 80, 82, 96, 266
reduplicated 78, 266
ScoreCloud (software) 295, 298299
seasonal cycle 36, 77, 123, 276
see also farming year
Seediq (language) 1, 13, 1516, 189203, 249250, 253, 256, 258260, 264, 266, 280, 286
Seediq Bale 190, 286n83
Seeger, Anthony 67
Seeger, Charles 17n40, 18
Sɛ́ɛn (shaman) 21
senh ch’elik (‘medicine songs’, Athabascan vocal genre) 137138, 186, 272
sequence
linguistic 113115, 148, 152153, 164, 166, 187, 191, 244
musical 148, 162, 165166, 168, 271
Sét Mán 3940
shaman 256257
Akha 13, 204225, 261262, 266, 269
Athabascan 137
Kammu 2122, 43, 45, 46, 9799, 110
Shandong drumsong 261
shan’ge (China) 259, 267, 277
Shuri (Ryukyuan dialect) 245246
Sibelius (software) 295, 298
Silas, Bergman 125n3, 126, 134, 161
Silas, Sarah, 125n3, 126, 134, 161
Singh, Manvir 282n69, 283n70
Sino-Tibetan (language family) 1, 206
Sjhá-gàw 204, 207, 209
Skype (software) 10
Sleeper, Morgan 5n14, 7, 8n20, 284n73, 288, 290n1, 297
Slobodin, Richard 125n5
Smith, John D. 266
Solomon, Madeline 128n12
Somswàt Búnkə́ət 38
song-leading 129, 140, 161, 171173
song-making 13, 16, 129, 140, 161, 167, 171, 173174, 177, 183
song-word 49, 5354, 82, 8687, 96, 120, 179, 188, 264, 273, 282
soundwave 233234, 242, 290
speed doubling 162
spells (krùu, Kammu vocal genre) 22n3, 43, 4547, 97118, 252, 254, 263
spirits 212, 31, 39, 43, 46, 49, 73, 97110, 207, 210, 218, 223
Squliq (language) 189
staging 285
stanzas 5556, 58, 60, 63, 68, 73, 8589, 9596, 121, 133, 138, 143144, 149, 157, 160, 165, 168, 192, 200, 202203, 256258, 260, 263, 267
Stevens, Robin 287n89
Stobart, Henry 276
Stone, Achara J. 278n53
story songs (Athabascan vocal genre) 135
stress 24, 56, 131, 133, 143, 145, 155, 162, 164, 191, 195, 200, 205, 221, 231, 234, 252, 266
stress-timing 234
sustainability 1, 286
Suyá (Brazil) 6
Swahn, Jan-Öjvind 8n21
syllabification 58
syllables 34, 5758, 111, 118, 131, 139, 151152, 157, 195, 202, 228, 258, 260263, 265, 271
and rhythmic pulse 138140, 150, 159, 164, 166, 179, 187
base syllable 26, 6970, 74, 76
coda of 26, 92
elongation 148, 151, 160, 164, 166, 179, 187
final 44, 48, 56, 63, 101, 104, 106, 116117, 140, 151, 154155, 164, 202, 224, 263
heavy 136, 164, 166
initial 46, 60, 63, 71, 96, 217, 220221, 236
light 138, 140, 164
long 228
major and minor 24, 56, 120121
penultimate 53, 63, 191, 263
second of iambic unit 80
tonal movement within 17, 26, 46, 48, 61, 6667, 6971, 74, 83, 92, 94, 96, 110, 113, 115, 121, 148
syntactic groups 4344, 48
Tá Khám 40
Tan, Shzr Ee 15n39, 189n1
tân nhạc (Vietnam) 270
Tanacross (village and language) 130, 161163, 172, 174
Tanana (village and language) 1, 123126, 129133, 137139, 142, 160, 164166, 170176
Tanese-Ito, Yoko 271n41
Tashlhiyt Berber (language) 266
Tayanin, Damrong see Kàm Ràw
tə́əm (Kammu vocal genre) 55, 8496, 98, 100, 121, 256, 258, 260, 267
Tenenbaum, Joan M. 15n37
text-setting 7n18, 270271
Tgdaya (Seediq dialect) 189191
Thai (language) 97
Thorsén, Stig-Magnus 18n42
Tiānjīn 9
Tibeto-Burman (language group) 206
Titus, Bertina 125n3
Titus, Charlie 173n41
Titus, Dorothy 125n3, 161, 167
Titus, John 152155
Toda (India) 260
Toda (Seediq dialect) 189
tonal centre 50, 56, 117, 121, 143, 157, 164165, 208, 213, 252, 272273
tone repetition 132133, 138, 143146, 149, 151, 155, 157, 160, 162, 165166, 168169, 186188, 263, 273
tone-centred 11, 72, 76, 8485, 90, 94, 96, 120121
Tove, Per-Arne 18n42
transcription (musical) 2, 11, 15, 1619, 2324, 28, 34, 50, 53, 58, 77, 8687, 92, 97, 121122, 125, 134, 154, 161, 191, 228, 250, 271, 280, 282, 290, 297299
transmission 2, 89, 13, 15, 55, 84, 88, 121, 128, 130, 133, 171, 185, 204, 229, 283, 283288
trǹəəm (Kammu poem) 5571, 7375, 7995, 98, 121, 256, 260, 270271, 277
Truku (Taroko, Seediq dialect) 189
Tuohy, Sue 285
Turino, Thomas 286
Turpin, Myfany 7n19
Uma Watan 191
universals 260, 279283
upstep 32
uuyas (‘song’, Seediq vocal genre) 192, 195
van der Meer, Wim 292n3
Venetie (village) 125126, 129
vibrato 2728, 121
vocables 10, 132133, 138, 142, 144149, 151162, 164, 166171, 178183, 186189, 191192, 201202, 258, 263264, 267, 282
vocal expression 15, 711, 1316, 248252, 254256, 258, 260, 262264, 267, 270273, 276279, 281284, 287289
Akha 206207, 225
Athabascan 125, 128130, 132133, 135, 137, 148, 154, 157159, 170173, 179, 183, 186187
Kammu 23, 27, 29, 31, 44, 55, 65, 73, 84, 9798, 118120
Ryukyuan/Japanese 228229, 244246
Seediq 190192, 203
vocal genre 1113, 2629, 5859, 118, 121, 132, 135, 138, 159, 186187, 264, 266267, 272277, 281
vocative 44, 46, 48, 100, 262, 266
vowel
length 26, 56, 264
onset 27, 74, 76, 92
quality 152, 156, 160, 191, 265
waka (tanka, Japanese poem) 1314, 226236, 244247, 252253, 261, 273
Walshaw, Christopher 297
Weeninck, David 290
whistling 97
Wichmann, Elizabeth 261, 264n26
Widén, Björn 8n21
Widén, Marie 8n21
word structure 24, 130
sesquisyllabic 24
yàam (‘weeping’, Kammu vocal genre) 7376
Yamada, Akira 229n5
Yao (Thailand) 263264
Yùan (Kammu dialect) 20, 2223, 3941, 5758, 79, 8487, 94, 267, 277, 286
Yung, Bell 261, 266, 267n33, 277n52
Yupik (language) 284
yùun tìiŋ (‘water-tube dance’, Kammu vocal genre) 7783
Zon, Bennett 19n43
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In the borderland between song and speech

Vocal expressions in oral cultures

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