Violence and the Great Turkish War in the work of Romeyn de Hooghe
Michel van Duijnen

This chapter discusses a selection of the many prints on the Great Turkish War (1683–99) produced by the famous Dutch printmaker Romeyn de Hooghe. Through the analysis of three different types of prints – news prints, triumphalia, and satirical prints – the chapter dissects the role of unrestrained violence in De Hooghe’s imagination of Europe’s borderlands. It shows that De Hooghe’s portrayal of the battle against ‘the Turk’ cultivated an ambiguous view of south-east Europe as a distant and distinctly violent place beset by ruthless Christian soldiers and warlike border peoples. In doing so, De Hooghe approached unrestrained violence as a theme that went well beyond simple anti-Turkish propaganda. Instead, De Hooghe positioned violence as an inherent characteristic of a vaguely defined European borderland where all parties, not least the Christian ones, succumbed to gruesome behaviour.

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
Legitimization and limits of Mughal military violence in early modern South Asia
Pratyay Nath

This chapter explores how the Mughal Empire legitimized its perpetration of military violence in early modern South Asia. It begins by highlighting that Mughal imperial discourse laid great emphasis on the dispensation of justice as the cornerstone of kingship. In turn, this allowed the empire to conceptualize the waging of war and the committing of violence as necessary means for establishing a just social order under the paternal guardianship of the emperor. Within such an ideological framework, war and violence were thought of more as a moral compulsion than a matter of princely whim or dynastic ambition. The chapter also studies the nature, purpose, and effects of military violence perpetrated by Mughal armies in the course of campaigns during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It argues that the scale of this violence was always limited by the urge of the Mughal emperors to project themselves – in both discourse and actuality – as the embodiment of just, tolerant, and caring universal sovereigns. The chapter concludes by assessing the role of military violence in Mughal empire-building and by comparing the Mughal case with other polities of early modern Eurasia.

in A global history of early modern violence
The revolt of Cairo and Revolutionary violence
Joseph Clarke

The repression that followed Cairo’s short-lived revolt against French occupation in October 1798 represents one of the single bloodiest episodes of the French Revolutionary wars. This chapter examines the violence that French forces deployed in suppressing the revolt and explores the attitudes towards civilian resistance that this violence reveals. In part, the violence of the French response to the rioting that swept Cairo that October echoed that of the counter-insurgency campaigns the Revolution’s armies had already conducted in other theatres of war in the 1790s. However, the ferocity of this violence also reflected the French soldiers’ intense antipathy towards Islam and, more generally, the religious ‘fanaticism’ they routinely blamed for the resistance encountered by the imposition of French rule. Drawing on these soldiers’ testimonies, this chapter traces the continuities that link this explosion of violence in a colonial context with the soldiers’ earlier exposure to, and cultural memory of, civil war at home in France.

in A global history of early modern violence
The changing scale of warfare and the making of early colonial South Asia
Manu Sehgal

Debates about the origins of a militarily dominant, territorially acquisitive regime of colonial rule in modern South Asia have invariably failed to assess the transformative impact of early colonial war-making on the East India Company state. This chapter studies the colonial regime within the framework of the bellicist origins of the modern state. Violent conquest depended on the modern state’s ability to vastly augment its capacity to author military violence. Dramatic expansion in the scale of war-making lent colonial specificities to the Company-state in India. As this scale expanded dramatically in the final decade of the eighteenth century, prolific war-making made the colonial state both colonial (in its extractive capabilities) and a hegemonic state formation. The most extensive, expensive, and politically consequential military conflict of the long eighteenth century – the Second Anglo-Maratha War in western India (1803–05) – provides a window into the crystallizing political economy of conquest. Below the surface of the image of an ever-ascendant military hegemon lies an under-studied universe centred on the extraction of resources to feed a ravenous machine of war, leading to fiscal crises and agrarian dislocation. Territorial conquest was both the principal objective and the primary mode of sustaining and expanding colonial rule across South Asia.

in A global history of early modern violence
Vũ Đức Liêm

The historiography of Vietnamese warfare is conventionally shaped by the view from the Grand Palace or dynastic chronicles: kings and empires dominate military and political narratives, positioning themselves at the centre of historical developments, with little room for local approaches. By contrast, this chapter gives voice to local understandings of war by considering local militia and their role in shaping early modern Vietnamese politics and society. It focuses on the densely populated Red River Delta and its process of militarization and increased social violence to argue that militarization was a significant social and political phenomenon in early nineteenth-century Vietnam. Although in the words of Charles Tilly ‘war made the state, and the state made war’, early modern Vietnam is a compelling case where warfare instead eroded the power of the central state.

in A global history of early modern violence
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

Chapter 7 considers non-participation and exclusions as well as reservation, consternation and rejections around genomic medicine in our research and in the public sphere more generally. We investigate the particular social and cultural contexts in which disengagement and resistance are generated. Exploring negative views and experiences or simply a lack of response to genomic medicine, we consider when these kinds of personalised medicine are ‘not relevant to us’ and why some people just do not have the capacity or resource to engage with them. Rejecting or refusing opportunities to engage with genomic medicine also results from the awareness of competing priorities such as health equality or preventive healthcare as well as a commitment to other forms of care. Not every patient can or wants to craft their own treatment pathways, or looks to the future with a sense of agency and control, and we reflect on what it means to opt out, be excluded or feel left behind by these kinds of research and care. We also discuss the ways in which different agencies and actors strive to tackle disengagement by reaching out to different communities to appeal to their sense of responsibility towards contributing to the prospects of better care for individuals and community now and in the future. We argue that these practices present an important counterpoint to the dominant, inclusive vision of P4 medicine, particularly with regard to personalisation and participation.

in Personalised cancer medicine
Gene-expression profiling in early-stage breast cancer
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

Chapter 2 explores the promise of prediction and prevention of recurrence in personalised medicine for some kinds of breast cancer through the case of a genomic technique already widely adopted within the NHS across the UK: gene-expression profiling. We consider a genomic test, Oncotype DX, which seeks to identify, among early breast cancer patients, those who would or would not benefit from chemotherapy to prevent future recurrence. The aim here is to limit exposure to chemotherapy, which can be toxic and debilitating. The test was promoted to the health service, practitioners and patients as a means of prediction and prevention, including via practitioners’ and patients’ contributions to processes of regulatory and clinical decision making surrounding the test. Considering how the test was envisaged as a benefit to the NHS and to patients in policy, practitioner and patient accounts of their experiences of decision making regarding chemotherapy, we explore how it fitted in with already complex cancer experiences and hopes for a cancer-free future. We look at how the narrative that the test offers reassurance and prediction came to dominate policy, but also consider situations where prediction and prevention were more contingent and provisional, particularly in the context of clinical encounters.

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Participation to build the bioeconomy
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

Chapter 5 is about large-scale national studies, recruiting patients with a range of cancers to collect extensive molecular information about cancer and ultimately inform routine patient care via precision medicine. We focus on Genomics England’s 100,000 Genomes Project. After discussing the rise of these mass-participation initiatives and their strong national imaginaries of economic development and cutting-edge healthcare, we explore how practitioners, patients and families made sense of participation, and how this related to their investments in particular institutions and futures. We explore the participatory logic of these initiatives, and the ways in which informed consent processes and genomic literacy agendas were developed and enacted to increase participation. We contrast efforts to improve genomic literacy and informed consent by clearly demarcating personal benefits in terms of improved care from the research dividend to the NHS, but with blurred boundaries in practice. Patients and family members were seeking care through participation and reworking efforts to improve their understanding to establish their worth as a patient and ensure optimal, personalised care into the future. We explore how this was managed by professionals to meet the aims of the programme despite their reservations about its value and implications.

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Digital culture and personalised medicine
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

While many cancer patients experience molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies as part of standard treatment or through clinical trials provided free-of-charge through the NHS, others turn to private providers to craft their own care pathways, utilising private health insurance, savings, taking out loans or raising money via crowdfunding online. In Chapter 6, we explore how practitioners, patients and their relatives seek to tailor their care and treatment pathways via these kinds of engagements with private healthcare. We examine ambivalence about access to expensive experimental treatments as part of NHS or private care, and draw associations between optimisation, actionability and adaptability via personalised diagnosis and therapies and patient entrepreneurship, and the intensified responsibilities for health and healthcare therein. Through this exploration we situate personalisation in relation to transformations in citizenship and consumption via social media platforms, and argue that this brings another layer of care, biosociality and identity work for patients and their relatives as they navigate the hope and social obligations of personalised cancer therapies.

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Exploring personalised cancer medicine
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

In this chapter we introduce the topics, case studies and the main themes of the book, exploring the medical and scientific, political and economic backdrop to personalised cancer medicine as the context for our study. After briefly outlining our methodology, we describe our orientation to the subject, the key questions and academic influences we have drawn upon and introduce each of the chapters to follow.

in Personalised cancer medicine