This article seeks to show that the bodies of Jewish people who died in the Drancy internment camp between 1941 and 1944 were handled on French soil in a doubly normalised manner: first by the police and judicial system, and then in relation to funeral arrangements. My findings thus contradict two preconceived ideas that have become firmly established in collective memory: first, the belief that the number who died in the Drancy camp is difficult to establish; and second, the belief that the remains of internees who died in the camp were subjected to rapid and anonymous burial in a large mass grave in Drancy municipal cemetery.
The Kulmhof extermination camp in Chełmno nad Nerem was the first camp set up by the Nazis to exterminate Jews during the Second World War. The history of Kulmhof has long been an area of interest for academics, but despite thorough research it remains one of the least-known places of its kind among the public. Studies of the role of archaeology in acquiring knowledge about the functioning of the camp have been particularly compelling. The excavations carried out intermittently over a thirty-year period (1986–2016), which constitute the subject of this article, have played a key role in the rise in public interest in the history of the camp.
Jon Seligman, Paul Bauman, Richard Freund, Harry Jol, Alastair McClymont, and Philip Reeder
The Ponar-Paneriai base, the main extermination site of Vilna-Vilnius, began its existence as a Red Army fuel depot in 1940. After Nazi occupation of the city in 1941 the Einsatzgruppen and mostly Lithuanian members of the Ypatingasis būrys used the pits dug for the fuel tanks for the murder of the Jews of Vilna and large numbers of Polish residents. During its operation, Ponar was cordoned off, but changes to the topography of the site since the Second World War have made a full understanding of the site difficult. This article uses contemporary plans and aerial photographs to reconstruct the layout of the site, in order to better understand the process of extermination, the size of the Ponar base and how the site was gradually reduced in size after 1944.
This article has two aims: to examine the effects of victim proximity to crematoria ashes and ash pits both consciously and unconsciously in a subset of Holocaust survivors, those who were incarcerated at the dedicated death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as Auschwitz-Birkenau; and to contrast these effects, the subject positions they produce, with their suppression as the basis both for a strategy of survival during incarceration and for a reimagined identity after the war. Within a cohort of four survivors from Rudolf Reder (Belzec), Esther Raab (Sobibor), Jacob Wiernik (Treblinka) and Shlomo Venezia (Auschwitz), I trace the ways in which discrete memories and senses became constitutive in the formation of the subject prior to and after escape – the experience of liberation – so that essentially two kinds of subjects became visible, the subject in liberation and the subject of ashes. In conjunction with these two kinds of subjects, I introduce the compensatory notion of a third path suggested both by H. G. Adler and Anna Orenstein, also Holocaust survivors, that holds both positions together in one space, the space of literature, preventing the two positions from being stranded in dialectical opposition to each other.
This chapter explores the ways in which balance was configured in diabetes
care between the 1900s and 1960s. The balance of diet and insulin sat at the
heart of self-care programmes during this period. However, amid growing
political and popular interest in affective life, clinicians and a novel
patient organisation quickly connected bodily balance with psychological and
emotional stability in new ways. Depression, complacency, denial, fear and
optimism soon became subject to management in clinical spaces, mutual aid
publications and long-term professional–patient interactions, in response to
changing notions of health citizenship and self-discipline, and as certain
states came to be considered dangerous or beneficial to physiological and
political balance. The chapter begins to map out the extensive array of
tools and agencies involved in constructing selves oriented towards
This chapter investigates questions about balance in Parkinson’s Disease by
analysing historical shifts in debates about a predetermined behavioural
model of a Parkinson’s Disease personality, its relationship to artistic
creativity and implications for therapeutic equilibrium in clinical
management. The aim of the chapter is to demonstrate that focusing on
balance merely in terms of therapeutic dosage plans ignores broader
dimensions of balancing cultural conflict surrounding ontological and
emergent meanings of the disease and the transcendent metaphysics of
creativity. In this way it addresses the contingent scientific and clinical
normativities of physiological and psychological balance and their
relationship to models of the self. Drawing out the historical determinants
of contingently normative neo-humoralism threaded through the story of
Parkinson’s Disease, this chapter also explores an alternative, and equally
ancient, narrative of balance about the dualism of creative genius. Efforts
to balance drug reception in the brain, it argues, are bound to the legacy
of Enlightenment normative contingencies concerning madness and reason,
genius and lunacy, creativity and manic compulsion.
Concepts of ‘balance’ have been central to modern politics, medicine and society.
Yet, while many health, environmental and social challenges are discussed
globally in terms of imbalances in biological, social and ecological systems,
strategies for addressing modern excesses and deficiencies have focused almost
exclusively on the agency of the individual. Balancing the Self explores the
diverse ways in which balanced and unbalanced selfhoods have been subject to
construction, intervention and challenge across the long twentieth century.
Through original chapters on subjects as varied as obesity control, fatigue and
the regulation of work, and the physiology of exploration in extreme conditions,
the volume analyses how concepts of balance and rhetorics of empowerment and
responsibility have historically been used for a variety of purposes, by a
diversity of political and social agencies. Historicising present-day concerns,
as well as uncovering the previously hidden interests of the past, this volume’s
wide-ranging discussions of health governance, subjectivity and balance will be
of interest to historians of medicine, sociologists, social policy analysts, and
social and political historians alike.
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
As the various contributions to this volume make clear, histories of notions
of ‘balanced selves’ are diverse. Ideas of balance differ across time and
cultural space, as do the ways in which balance might be regulated,
controlled and incentivised. Among all this variety, this chapter asks: How
is it possible to historicise balanced selfhood at all? What is the basis
for the assumption that human selves might be differently realised according
to the norms of different times and places? The chapter makes two arguments.
First, that a significant part of this notion of ‘malleable humanity’ comes
from early twentieth-century anthropology, especially from work in the
tradition of Franz Boas and Margaret Mead. Second, that the context for
these assumptions becoming visible is a resurgence of neurological,
neurochemical and genomic visions of humanity from the late 1990s onwards.
If the malleable selves that populate our histories of balance are
significantly anthropological, then their relationship with imperialism must
be clarified. In addition, as the visibility of malleable selves is related
to the resurgence of a new biological vision of humanity, the place of
historians in this contested terrain must also be clarified.
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human
This chapter investigates notions of balance in the ‘natural laboratories’ of
extreme physiology – specifically the high Arctic, Antarctica and high
altitude in South America and the Himalaya. Physiologists and other
biomedical scientists celebrated these sites as spaces in which many
varieties of imbalance could be studied. The chapter concentrates on three
different kinds of balance: moderation, physiological homeostasis and
psychological stress responses. Through these case studies extreme
environments emerge as sites where, firstly, notions of balance could be
debated and reconstituted, and secondly where the white adult male’s body
became established as the norm for such research. This unquestioned
centralisation of a very specific kind of body as a standard measure in
balance research – particularly as it was a body not indigenous to extreme
environments – had consequences for the practices of both science and
Intermediating the French subsidies to Sweden during the Thirty Years’
This chapter offers a different perspective on the study of subsidies by
looking beyond the interstate level, adding a new dimension to our
understanding of the development of the state system. Not only were
subsidies arranged by state and non-state agents; this contribution argues
that subsidies along with other war-making resources were organized in
specific urban European centres, here referred to as ‘fiscal-military hubs’.
By shifting focus from entrepreneurs to fiscal-military hubs we may obtain
further insights into resource mobilization, in particular the relationship
between the business of war and European state formation.