Recognising that there will continue to be constraints placed on scientific freedom by international policymakers on security grounds, this chapter presents arguments for reciprocal responsibilities of the scientific community and international policymakers in appropriately governing the security aspects of scientific research involving dangerous pathogens. It also explores how the international community is responding to the need to balance certain freedoms and responsibilities in relevant policy processes. In the context of tensions between health-related and security-related approaches to the international governance of pathogens, the chapter explores how the scientific and policymaking communities can best support each other in developing and implementing international biosecurity measures. These tensions arise because scientific work on pathogens is necessary for the protection of health, but such work also poses risks to health, through accidental or deliberate releases. Effective management of these tensions requires ongoing dialogue and improved science advisory mechanisms within relevant policy processes.