Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann
Austria's attitude towards the (West) European integration process after 1945 has been ambivalent at best. The Second Republic was designed as a democratic system, based on political pluralism and party competition. In comparison with other national parliaments the Austrian parliament is provided with strong constitutionally embodied participation rights in the field of European Union (EU) policy. To assess the changes in the Austrian policy-making process induced by European integration is somewhat difficult owing to the relatively short period of EU membership. The easiest part of the task of describing the changes Austria has undergone since the beginning of EU membership in 1995 concerns constitutional amendments. By way of conclusion, a clear-cut judgement on the form and degree of the transformation of the Austrian political and economic system as a result of European integration is far from possible.