National machineries for the advancement of women are an accepted feature of many United Nations (UN) member states, having progressively gained ground during the 1975-1985 UN Decade for Women and in subsequent UN Conferences on women which called for their strengthening. This chapter focuses on Uganda as a case study. The analysis takes account of the checklist of the assumed ideal machinery, with the aim of assessing the strengths, weaknesses and successes of the national machinery in Uganda. The checklist against which the Ugandan case has been evaluated points to the dilemma that faces many national machineries for gender equality. Although the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development (MGLSD) has helped to raise women's visibility and the public political sphere has recorded some success towards gender equality, it is important to note that the private sphere is still dominated by men.