Still unique or just one in the crowd?

This chapter analyses the European Union's (EU) relations with five broad regional groupings: the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. To explore why the EU-ACP relationship is losing its uniqueness, the chapter examines the evolution of the Union's policies towards the five regions. The chapter then explores the extent to which the Union's policies towards the five regions have evolved, and why. It begins with the ACP countries, the oldest of the EU's regional relationships. The post-Cold War foreign policy priorities of the Union have been defined as 'regional' in the sense of the European region. Politicisation really began in earnest with respect to Central and Eastern Europe at the end of the Cold War, where the EU's main aim was the support for political and economic reforms.

in EU development cooperation
The logics underpining EU enlargement

Justifications of the EU's foreign policy have two addressees: the first is internal to the EU and consists of the member states and their citizens; the second is external and consists of non-member states and their citizens. This chapter focuses on the EU's attempts to validate its foreign policy externally. It considers the EU's policy on enlargement as foreign policy. The chapter presents analytically distinct approaches for examining the basis of legitimacy for foreign policy in general. There are three analytically distinct ways in which a foreign policy can achieve legitimacy. They are grounded in different logics of action or justification for an individual actor: a logic of consequences, a logic of appropriateness and a logic of moral justification. The chapter analyses how the EU has actually applied membership conditionality and how it has justified its actions.

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy