Intermediating the French subsidies to Sweden during the Thirty Years’ War
Marianne Klerk

This chapter offers a different perspective on the study of subsidies by looking beyond the interstate level, adding a new dimension to our understanding of the development of the state system. Not only were subsidies arranged by state and non-state agents; this contribution argues that subsidies along with other war-making resources were organized in specific urban European centres, here referred to as ‘fiscal-military hubs’. By shifting focus from entrepreneurs to fiscal-military hubs we may obtain further insights into resource mobilization, in particular the relationship between the business of war and European state formation.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789