, at a
time when steel production was the best single indicator of industrial
power and hence of military potential.6 The USA, Germany and France
were all expanding their naval capabilities. In addition, Britain had a
relatively small standing army, at a time when armies were gaining in
importance relative to naval power with the opportunities provided by
the opening up of vast tracks of land through the development of the
railway. For example, Russia expanded its standing army from 647,000
in 1890, to 1,119,000 in 1900, whereas the whole of the Britishempire
of man. This led to a concern with imperialism and of conditions in the Britishempire and, at times, support for
nationalist movements and for national self-determination, which was
often at odds with Labour’s belief in Britain’s continuing world and
imperial role. Indeed, Labour’s policy on colonial affairs was usually
confused and inconsistent.
Within the Labour Party there have always been divisions over
how these internationalist principles should be interpreted, which of
these principles should be prioritised and which of these principles
were achievable in
when the first Australians
served in Suakin (see chapter 6 ), far exceeded
their skills and limited numbers. Private Tom Wood (2/DCLI) admitted:
‘I had no idea of the greatness of the BritishEmpire until I came
out here. It is surprising to see men here from all parts of the world,
always ready to uphold the Union Jack, and to support each other in any
13 Patricia Clavin, Securing the World's Economy: The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
14 UN Secretary-General, Co-operatives in Social Development .
15 Akhil Gupta, Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India (London: Duke University Press, 1998), 38.
16 Rita Rhodes, Empire and Co-operation: How the BritishEmpire used Co-operatives in its Development Strategies, 1900–1970 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2012
: Oxford University Press, 2002).
16 Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Pantheon, 1978).
17 Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object , foreword Matti Bunzl (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).
18 Eric Hayot, On Literary Worlds (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
19 Dipesh Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
20 See Antoinette Burton and Isabel Hofmeyr, ‘Introduction’, in Antoinette Burton and Isabel Hofmeyr (eds), Ten Books That Shaped the BritishEmpire
industry was prompted by the crisis in the BritishEmpire in the 1930s. The Great Depression had shown that too many of Britain’s colonies were dependent on a narrow range of agricultural exports, making them highly vulnerable to the fluctuations of the world market. 6 The encouragement of colonial industry was a way to solve the issues of unemployment and low living standards. In further contrast to the recommendations of the interwar period, Stanley claimed that the new policy for industrialisation would not prioritise the interests of British manufacturers. New
provision of pooled security against aggression.’76 This was to be done through a strengthening
of the League, and a small reduction in national defence expenditure.
Whereas the 1924 government had agreed to military sanctions to
maintain security, the 1929 government relied on the sanction of the
law and disarmament. Both governments tended to see the Britishempire as a single unit when it came to foreign and security policy, and
the colonies and the self-governing Dominions were expected to
support unreservedly British initiatives at the League of Nations for
Mussolini. Overall, Chamberlain was ‘Suspicious of the Soviet Union,
disdainful of Roosevelt’s “verbiage”, impatient at what he felt France’s
confused diplomacy of intransigence and passivity, and regarding the
THE LABOUR PARTY AND THE WORLD
Table 6.1—Defence expenditure totals and as a percentage of national income,
% of national income
spent on defence
the scarcity of currency through the issuance of
paper money (Ferguson 1954; Bogin 1989; Mann 2003: 176; Holton
2004; Wright 2008). While some of the war debt was capitalized to
weaken the BritishEmpire by enemies from France, Spain, and the
United Provinces, the overwhelming majority of debt issues from the
revolutionary period were owned by domestic social forces (Davies
2002: 467). How widespread revolutionary debts were held by the end
of the war is a matter of considerable dispute; and given that a series
of fires in the treasury destroyed federal records, it
after that with the decline in gold mining and the constriction of demand
for indentured Chinese labour. Indian migration continued unabated, however. Somewhere between thirty and forty million Indians were recruited
to other parts of the BritishEmpire between 1830 and the First World War
(Castles et al., 2014: 88–9). The decline of Indian industry in the face of
favoured British imports created adverse conditions that pushed labourers
overseas. Japanese labourers exported, in effect, to Hawaii, Peru and Brazil
formed hybrid communities. Longer