Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940
1970; Kirk Arden Hoppe, Lords of the Fly: Sleeping Sickness
Control in British East Africa, 1900–1960 , Westport,
CT, Praeger, 2003 ; Kuhanen, Poverty, Health
and Reproduction ; Carol Summers, ‘Intimate
Colonialism: The Imperial Production of Reproduction in Uganda,
1907–1925’, Signs , 16, 4, 1991 , pp. 787–807; Michael William Tuck,
‘Syphilis, Sexuality, and Social
Denise Roth Allen, Managing Motherhood,
Managing Risk: Fertility and Danger in West Central
Tanzania , Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2002 ; Valarie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary
Marland (eds.), Women and Children First: International Maternal
and Infant Welfare, 1870–1945 , London, Routledge, 1992 ; Sarah Hodges, Contraception,
Human Consequences (Cambridge:
Polity, 1998), p. 1.
McMillan, p. 22.
Tom Kilroy, ‘A Generation of Playwrights’, in Eamonn Jordan (ed.),
Theatre Stuff: Critical Essays on Contemporary Irish Theatre (Dublin:
Carysfort, 2000), pp. 1–7. 3. Article first published in Irish University
Murray, p. 162.
Kilroy, p. 6.
Marianne McDonald, ‘Classics as Celtic Firebrand: Greek Tragedy, Irish
Playwrights, and Colonialism’, in Jordan (ed.), Theatre Stuff, p. 16.
Harvey O’Brien, review of A Cry From Heaven in Irish Theatre Magazine
5: 24 (2005), p. 51.
O’Brien, p. 52.
this internal colonialism
and the rapid social and economic disruption that accompanied it continue to be felt (for scholarly works on these dynamics, see Alfred, 1995;
Mitchell, 1996; Shkilnyk, 1985; Irlbacher-Fox, 2009; Vitebsky, 2005).
A passage from Hugh Brody’s book The Other Side of Eden gives one
vivid illustration of the colonial legacy. Brody was collecting interviews
for a film in northern British Colombia, amongst the Nisga’a people. He
decided to interview an artist assisting with the film, George Gosnell,
about his experience in the residential school
Cannadine, ‘The Context, Performance and
Meaning of Ritual’, 120–1.
Cannadine, Ornamentalism , 4.
Bernard Cohn, Colonialism and Its Forms of
Knowledge (Princeton, 1996); Nicholas Dirks, Castes of
Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern
evidence of the importance of its
adaptability. Literature on colonialism that generalizes about the
colonizing process often implies a rupture in political rule or an event
of cultural resistance as the defining moment in the identity of a
nation. As the country’s hegemonic identity has been controlled by
Canada’s Anglo-Celtic immigrants from the imperial centre,
attempting to impose a white settler
occurred at the same time that settler colonialism and Atlantic slavery began, and European trading companies (not only the best known, like the British and Dutch East India Companies, but also those as short-lived as Courland's (Dzenovska 2013 )) were expanding colonial power, a comparative history of empire might ask how far Habsburg or Ottoman imperialisms were informed by the notions fuelling Spanish, Portuguese, British, French, Dutch, Danish or Swedish colonial power overseas. Such questions, essential for decolonial longue-durée perspectives on south-east Europe
, in contrast to the religiously mixed but predominantly Muslim Indonesians. This Catholicism reflects in part the bequest of Portuguese colonialism, but more potently stands as a rejection of an Indonesian identity.
It is sometimes suggested that the period of Portuguese rule was one of benign neglect. The neglect is indisputable – little effort at development or the provision of services was made until the 1950s. By 1973 the illiteracy rate of the East Timorese was estimated at 93 per cent, and infant mortality in the 1950s (1960s’ and 1970s
Migrants were economic agents, whether as labourers, consumers or traders.
Bearing and exchanging goods, however conceived, involved exchanging values, especially when exchanges have been in inter-cultural contexts. The impact
of early modern trade can be no less evident than in the example of inter-
continental dispersion and circulation of species of flora and fauna stimulated by
colonialism. But, then again the length and strength of the chains of connection
that finance lubricated –even before the rise of Italian banking –is surprising
that from the 1940s to the 1970s transformations within
ethnography were influenced by processes of counter-colonialism,
decolonization, and other struggles against imperialism and racism. This
context shaped emergent critiques of reigning paradigms within the
Here was an interchange between the autonomy and logic governing
continuities and changes within disciplinary traditions