centrality of language and historical
experience; the principle of individuality (while often pursuing a
universal history); and acute inclinations toward hermeneutical
understandings. This is to say also distinct formations and discrete
intimations of what Isaiah Berlin has notably described as the
“Counter-Enlightenment,” “the great river of
romanticism” running from the eighteenth
in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism (Pittsburgh:
Pittsburgh University Press, 1972); P. Keal, European Conquest and the Rights
of Indigenous Peoples: The Moral Backwardness of International Society
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 67.
Gong, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in
International Society , 55–7; A. Anghie, ‘Finding the
Peripheries: Sovereignty and Colonialism
might still have been savages and
idolators.… The Modern Greek is the descendant of those glorious
beings’. 56 It was a great
advantage to the Greek cause that Europe and America were then under the spell of
classicism, which venerated the ancient Greeks, as well as romanticism, making the
uprising appear a most romantic episode. 57
For the Russians, the Greeks striving for freedom were the
descendants of the venerated Byzantines (to whom they owed
as Schelling makes clear, that there is no individual solution to these dilemmas,
though it would at the same time be a mistake to underestimate the extent to
which aesthetic modernism does have substantial political and social eﬀects.
Mythology, language and being
Schelling develops some of the STI’s ideas on art and mythology in the slightly
later – 1802–3 – Philosophy of Art (PA), a text which is, however, much more
obviously linked to Idealism than to Romanticism. The PA argues that something vital is lost when the modern world ceases to be able to
French naturalism, which was superseded by symbolism and a new ‘nervous romanticism’. In a recent revision of this idea,
Stéphane Michaud has argued in favour of seeing classical works of
German modernism by Musil and Döblin as the legitimate heirs to French
naturalism.14 Alternatively, we could view expressionism, the successor
to naturalism, as does Richard Heinrich, as a ‘naturalism of nerves’.15
Richard Daniel Lehan goes further, proposing that the literary modes of
naturalism and realism were the crucial ‘vortex through which the novel
passed’ across Europe and
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson
research is once again absent here’. Looking North: Northern England
and the National Imagination (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004),
8 For example, The Labour Publishing Co., The Forward Press, Independent Labour
Party Publications, Lawrence and Wishart (initially associated with the Communist
Party), Victor Gollancz and Michael Joseph Ltd.
9 See Michael J. Dixon, ‘The Epic Rhondda: Romanticism and Realism in the Rhondda
Trilogy’, in Meic Stephens (ed.), Rhys Davies: Decoding the Hare (Cardiff: University
of Wales Press, 2001); Huw Osborne, Rhys
discussed in Chapter 6 . Even quite reasonable discussions of the violence and methods of death suffered by Lindow Man (such as Hill 2004b ) have earned the ire of sceptics, keen to demystify this phenomenon (Hutton 2004b ; see also response by Hill 2004a ). Meanwhile in 1960s Denmark, Glob’s emphasis upon ritual sacrifice to a goddess of fertility, in the cases of Tollund and Grauballe Man, have been critically situated by Asingh ( 2009 : 18) in a similar backlash: ‘In the post war years, National Romanticism was dusted off … Just think – we Danes are descendants of
would undoubtedly be much poorer, and perhaps impossible.
Back in the nineteenth century, as scientific disciplines emerged with their special genre of publications, seminars, and conferences, there was a parallel boom in historical narratives with an element of escapism. As part of the reaction of Romanticism to the Enlightenment project, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars, both science and art increased. Rational science was separated from speculative inquiry at the same time as there were constant crossings of borders.
Artists have interpreted the
relativism. The debate may also arise on account of vandalisation of World Heritage sites (e.g. Silverman & Fairchild Ruggles 2007 ; Langfield et al . 2010 ; Logan 2012 ; Harrison 2013 : 140ff; Ekern et al . 2015 ; Bille Larsen 2018 ; Meskell 2018 : 218ff).
The relationship between the outstanding and the universal in the case of World Heritage is part of a larger debate about the particular and the general. On one side is the universalism of the Age of Enlightenment, with humanity as an imagined collective, and on the other is the particularism of Romanticism
Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction
Stannard Barrett, The heroine, or adventures of a fair romance reader (Kansas City, MO: Valancourt Books, 2011), p. xix.
Jim Shanahan, ‘Escaping from Barrett's moon: recreating the Irish literary landscape in the Romantic period’, in Kelly (ed.), Ireland and Romanticism , p. 195.