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Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

bookmakers and lucky punters. Chapter 3 explores betting, the ‘lifeblood’ of racing. Betting was found across class, gender and generation. Illegal off-course cash betting was tacitly accepted, and led to widespread corruption of the police force. The interwar period was one in which spending on betting went up faster than real wages, occupying an increasingly-higher proportion of household expenditure. Writing just after the Second World War, Seebohm Rowntree, with pardonable exaggeration, estimated that ‘between 300,000 and 400,000 people were gainfully employed in the

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Olivier Thomas Kramsch

dereliction reigns over the whole surface of the structure, made all the more acute by being juxtaposed with the prim row of single-family detached houses situated just opposite. As I circle the building on foot, it feels like walking around a wartime ruin. And, in a flash, I am transported to the images of wartime destruction which fell upon this Dutch/German borderland during the Second World War in September 1944, when the Allies unsuccessfully attempted to force an entry from France into Germany over the Rhine by seizing bridges across the Maas, the Waal and the Lower

in Migrating borders and moving times
Scenarios in south east Europe
Christian Giordano

; 4 million were apportioned to 1.4 million farmers while 2 million became State property or were assigned to the municipalities (Castellan 1994: 78). At first sight, the reform appears imposing. A strong modernisation drive could be hoped for, indeed, even a solution to the ‘land question’ in terms of the ‘social question’; but this was not so. Before the Second World War, agriculture did not progress much and rural living standards were among Europe’s lowest (Castellan 1994: 79). Moreover, according to the 1930 census, 6,700 big landowners still held 24 per cent of

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

of being a good British citizen. 5 Vaccination is not simply imposed upon the British public. It is something which the public demands of its government and its fellow citizens. 6 The preceding chapters have shown how the routine immunisation of children became the status quo in Britain after the Second World War. Modern vaccination programmes based on laboratory science and state-guided public health administration arrived on a national scale in the 1940s. The success of the anti-diphtheria campaign during the war showed both to the Ministry

in Vaccinating Britain
Promises and perils
Prashanth Parameswaran

relations Southeast Asia has traditionally occupied a marginal role in US foreign policy in general and US Asia policy in particular, unlike China or Japan, which both loomed much larger and much earlier. Even though there was some level of US involvement in some Southeast Asian states previously, the region really first rose to prominence in the context of threats to the United States and to its European and Asian allies and partners during the Second World War and then the Cold War. 2 That prominence was followed by a pattern of waxing and waning of US commitment

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

directly related to the Second World War. Probably the most prominent is the role of Germany. Almost every issue covers at least one article in which this role is revised. This is done directly, e.g. by ‘proving’ that crimes generally ascribed to Nazi Germany were not as bad as is claimed. Several articles deal with the question of ‘How many Jews really died?’ (DNZ 7/6/91). In these articles the crimes against the Jews are not denied, but the number of (possible) victims is considerably reduced. Other articles try to prove that Germany did not start the war but was

in The ideology of the extreme right
‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’
Cas Mudde

chap5 28/5/02 13.32 Page 117 Part III The Netherlands: ‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’ The extreme right in the Netherlands, 1945–84 Following the end of the Second World War the Dutch process of denazification began with the internment of some 100,000 collaborators. Several former members of the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging in Nederland (National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, NSB), the only legal Dutch political party during the German occupation, and of the (Waffen-) SS lost their political rights, mostly for several years (see Bank 1998

in The ideology of the extreme right
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

’s constitution, with the commitment ‘for the establishment of suitable machinery for the adjustment and settlement of international disputes by conciliation or judicial arbitration and for such other international legislation as may be practicable’.7 The Labour Party was the most wholehearted supporter amongst the British political parties for the establishment of international organisations to regulate and arbitrate world affairs, and it spent the years during the First and Second World Wars thinking about the post-war settlement and the maintenance of peace through

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)
Sabine Clarke

from this, the forty new laboratories created across the Colonial Empire after the Second World War were said to endow Britain’s colonies with the ability to participate in the international advance of science, and therefore to operate as modern states. Science and scientists took on unprecedented importance for the British Colonial Office after 1940, both in providing solutions to practical issues that arose from the drive for development and also in demonstrating the enduring value of British interventions in the tropics and Britain’s commitment to modernising its

in Science at the end of empire
Barry Atkins

abstract gameplay and pixelated graphics that had eaten into my spare time over a number of weeks from any notion of a ‘real’ Second World War, a ‘real’ parachute assault on Arnhem, and a ‘real’ Adolf Hitler, winning not just the game, but the approval of even a simulation of Nazi Germany left me feeling a little flat, to say the least. I was also well aware that if I mentioned my military triumph in the English department where I am a lecturer, then I might find myself treated with the kind of suspicion usually reserved for those who appear to have mistaken the military

in More than a game