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Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

United Kingdom General elections and changes of government 5 July 1945 First general election after the Second World War. Unusually (to allow for votes from those doing military service overseas to be sent to the United Kingdom) the count is delayed until 26 July 1945. Labour is the largest party (47.8 per cent: majority of 147 seats). Attlee becomes Prime Minister

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder

off limits for non-Italian campaigns. Ever since the unification of Italy, with Rome becoming the new nation’s capital in 1871, large-scale fieldwork projects in the city had been effectively restricted to Italian experts, the likes of Rodolfo Lanciani, Giacomo Boni and Alfonso Bartoli. But after the collapse of the Fascist regime and with the nascent process of European collaboration in the aftermath of the Second World War, Italy gradually opened up its rich soil to archaeologists from abroad. The Dutch were among the first to profit from this opportunity; their

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

with those of the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, even if they differed somewhat in their ideological origins, and helped shape the post-1945 international economic order. Third, this is an interesting period to study in terms of Britain’s changing role in the world. Britain had been the only victorious European state in the Second World War, which reinforced the perspective that it was a world leader, and a great and triumphant power. However, it was at this point in time that it became apparent for the first time that Britain’s pre-eminent position in the

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Economy, football and Istria
Alex J. Bellamy

historians and economists argued that ‘Croatia’s currency has an old and distinguished history’.16 They pointed out that the Kuna had been a symbol of the Croatian MUP_Bellamy_06_Ch5 106 9/3/03, 9:30 T      107 people since its first known usage in 1256. Contrary to those who argued that the currency had a fascist heritage, they argued that during the Second World War the Kuna was the currency of both the Usta°a and the Croatia Partisans, who issued bonds in a denomination called Dinar-Kuna. This dual role made the Kuna an important symbol of

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

properly underway. Gripped with the desire to make his mark as a writer, the trip to Asia provided the raw material for Stone’s first writing project: a semi-​autobiographical novel that lay dormant for many years before being published in the 1990s as A Child’s Night Dream. Figure 1  Lou and Oliver Stone, Hong Kong, February 1968 Wa r The themes of suicide and death reverberate through the pages of this early writing, and it is not hard to see how the American post-​Second World War psychoses of power, responsibility, guilt and redemption dictate much of Stone

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Promises and perils
Prashanth Parameswaran

relations Southeast Asia has traditionally occupied a marginal role in US foreign policy in general and US Asia policy in particular, unlike China or Japan, which both loomed much larger and much earlier. Even though there was some level of US involvement in some Southeast Asian states previously, the region really first rose to prominence in the context of threats to the United States and to its European and Asian allies and partners during the Second World War and then the Cold War. 2 That prominence was followed by a pattern of waxing and waning of US commitment

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

bookmakers and lucky punters. Chapter 3 explores betting, the ‘lifeblood’ of racing. Betting was found across class, gender and generation. Illegal off-course cash betting was tacitly accepted, and led to widespread corruption of the police force. The interwar period was one in which spending on betting went up faster than real wages, occupying an increasingly-higher proportion of household expenditure. Writing just after the Second World War, Seebohm Rowntree, with pardonable exaggeration, estimated that ‘between 300,000 and 400,000 people were gainfully employed in the

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Olivier Thomas Kramsch

dereliction reigns over the whole surface of the structure, made all the more acute by being juxtaposed with the prim row of single-family detached houses situated just opposite. As I circle the building on foot, it feels like walking around a wartime ruin. And, in a flash, I am transported to the images of wartime destruction which fell upon this Dutch/German borderland during the Second World War in September 1944, when the Allies unsuccessfully attempted to force an entry from France into Germany over the Rhine by seizing bridges across the Maas, the Waal and the Lower

in Migrating borders and moving times
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

of being a good British citizen. 5 Vaccination is not simply imposed upon the British public. It is something which the public demands of its government and its fellow citizens. 6 The preceding chapters have shown how the routine immunisation of children became the status quo in Britain after the Second World War. Modern vaccination programmes based on laboratory science and state-guided public health administration arrived on a national scale in the 1940s. The success of the anti-diphtheria campaign during the war showed both to the Ministry

in Vaccinating Britain