Peter H. Wilson

Fiscal-Military Instruments were contracts which covered the provision of war-making materials ranging from warships, weaponry, munitions and other equipment to food and fodder, as well as the supply of horses and transport animals. These resources were often purchased, but they could also be hired – notably in the case of warships such as the fleet, complete with weaponry and crews, that was provided by the Dutch arms merchant Louis de Geer (1587–1652) for the Danes in their war against Sweden in 1643–1645.15 Similar subcategories can be identified for contracts over

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
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The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

were at stake – in fact, a step ‘back’ from supranationalism to intergovernmentalism.2 MUP_Torbion_03_Ch3 33 22/9/03, 12:33 pm 34 Destination Europe To the British, watching all this from across the Channel, the Luxembourg compromise made the EEC method seem less threatening. After trying in vain to reach an acceptable free-trade area agreement with the Six in 1957–58 (having failed inter alia due to the United Kingdom’s Commonwealth Preference System), London formed a free-trade area among the ‘other six’ in Western Europe – Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden

in Destination Europe
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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

President. 25 April 1976 New, democratic, constitution adopted in Portugal. 1 May 1980 Queen Beatrix becomes monarch of the Netherlands, following the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana. 21 October 1981 Papandreou forms Greece’s first ever Socialist-led government. 28 February 1986 Assassination of Palme, Sweden’s Prime Minister. 8 June

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

consequence of the joining of the newest member states, Austria, Finland and Sweden, that obtained European Union membership in 1995? While it is hard to substantiate such an influence firmly, it seems obvious that, by their geographical location and history, these countries are likely to be among the Union members most interested in the political, economic and social development of Central and Eastern Europe. This could well turn out to be a source of additional support for the already clearly established trend to step up assistance efforts for countries in that region

in EU development cooperation
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What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
Catherine Baker

-century production of national cultures: that ‘race’ did not matter in European nations without colonies. Yet postcolonial studies of the Nordic region have overcome this, showing striking similarities between former colonial powers and nations that were sometimes under their own neighbours' imperial rule. Coalitions of white and Afro-Scandinavian scholars, working across national boundaries, have demonstrated that not only the assertive middle-ranking empires of Denmark and Sweden, but also national identity-making projects in Swedish-ruled Norway and Danish

in Race and the Yugoslav region
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Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

1 Beyond the witch trials Marking (dis)order Marking (dis)order: witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland Raisa Maria Toivo What do witchcraft and witch trials tell us about power and social hierarchy? Witch trials have often enough been explained in terms of social relations and schisms, particularly in local contexts. In a highly competitive world, disagreements resulted from and caused both attacks by suspected witches and accusations made against them. It has often been noted that in Sweden and

in Beyond the witch trials
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Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack, and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

interpreting neutrality with regard to economic and ideological dimensions. Austria not only signed a customs and price agreement with the ECSC in 1956 in the framework of GATT, but also entered into negotiations with the EEC in order to establish independent agreements on tariff reductions, dispute resolution committees and economic policy harmonisation in 1960.4 As for the rest of the European neutrals (Switzerland, Sweden and Finland) at that time membership in the EEC was viewed as incompatible 2444Ch14 3/12/02 338 2:05 pm Page 338 Member States and the European

in Fifteen into one?
Mia-Marie Hammarlin

? Håkan Juholt (HJ): It was constantly for a while, it came and went for a while. But I never noticed that they disappeared completely, so from October to January there was always someone there. I: That’s quite a few months. HJ: Yes, there was always someone. Sometimes there were many, sometimes only a few photographers. I: From October to January? HJ: Yes, there was always someone in the stairwell, always someone outside. I: In the stairwell? HJ: In the stairwell. In the beginning they rang the doorbell pretty regularly, but I think it was SÄPO [the Swedish

in Exposed
Class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic
Kieran Allen

kept to within three per cent of GDP and accumulated national debts should be no more than sixty per cent of GDP. The effect of this measure has been to encourage national governments to cut back on public spending. Sweden offers a clear example of the effects of this approach. The welfare state in Sweden continued to expand through the 1980s but then faced sharp cuts after Sweden’s accession to the EU in 1995. One commentator described the effects as follows: social and public expenditure in Sweden has been reduced in recent years. There have been cuts to benefits

in The end of Irish history?
A critical assessment of work effort in Britain in comparison to Europe
Alan Felstead and Francis Green

’s hours have remained stable. For men, there was a sharp dip between 2008 and 2009, from 40.7 to 40.1, and since then they have remained largely stable, not returning to the levels seen prior to the 2008–09 recession (see Figure 10.2). It should also be noted that official, Making work more equal 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Germany Netherlands Norway Denmark France Slovenia Switzerland Sweden Austria Luxembourg Finland Australia United Kingdom Spain Canada Japan Italy New Zealand Slovak Republic OECD countries Czech Republic United States Ireland Lithuania Israel

in Making work more equal