Fiscal-Military Instruments were contracts which covered
the provision of war-making materials ranging from warships,
weaponry, munitions and other equipment to food and fodder, as
well as the supply of horses and transport animals. These resources
were often purchased, but they could also be hired – notably in the
case of warships such as the fleet, complete with weaponry and
crews, that was provided by the Dutch arms merchant Louis de
Geer (1587–1652) for the Danes in their war against Sweden in
1643–1645.15 Similar subcategories can be identified for contracts
were at stake – in fact, a step ‘back’ from
supranationalism to intergovernmentalism.2
22/9/03, 12:33 pm
To the British, watching all this from across the Channel, the Luxembourg compromise made the EEC method seem less threatening. After
trying in vain to reach an acceptable free-trade area agreement with the
Six in 1957–58 (having failed inter alia due to the United Kingdom’s
Commonwealth Preference System), London formed a free-trade area
among the ‘other six’ in Western Europe – Austria, Denmark, Norway,
25 April 1976 New, democratic,
constitution adopted in Portugal.
1 May 1980 Queen Beatrix
becomes monarch of the Netherlands, following the abdication of her mother,
21 October 1981 Papandreou
forms Greece’s first ever Socialist-led government.
28 February 1986 Assassination
of Palme, Sweden’s Prime Minister.
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
of the joining of the newest member states, Austria, Finland and Sweden, that
obtained European Union membership in 1995? While it is hard to substantiate such an influence firmly, it seems obvious that, by their geographical location and history, these countries are likely to be among the Union members
most interested in the political, economic and social development of Central
and Eastern Europe. This could well turn out to be a source of additional
support for the already clearly established trend to step up assistance efforts
for countries in that region
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
-century production of national cultures: that ‘race’ did not matter in European nations without colonies. Yet postcolonial studies of the Nordic region have overcome this, showing striking similarities between former colonial powers and nations that were sometimes under their own neighbours' imperial rule.
Coalitions of white and Afro-Scandinavian scholars, working across national boundaries, have demonstrated that not only the assertive middle-ranking empires of Denmark and Sweden, but also national identity-making projects in Swedish-ruled Norway and Danish
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo
Beyond the witch trials
Marking (dis)order: witchcraft and the symbolics of
hierarchy in late seventeenth- and
early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo
What do witchcraft and witch trials tell us about power and social hierarchy?
Witch trials have often enough been explained in terms of social relations
and schisms, particularly in local contexts. In a highly competitive world,
disagreements resulted from and caused both attacks by suspected witches
and accusations made against them. It has often been noted that in Sweden
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack, and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann
interpreting neutrality with regard to economic and ideological dimensions.
Austria not only signed a customs and price agreement with the ECSC in
1956 in the framework of GATT, but also entered into negotiations with
the EEC in order to establish independent agreements on tariff reductions,
dispute resolution committees and economic policy harmonisation in
1960.4 As for the rest of the European neutrals (Switzerland, Sweden and
Finland) at that time membership in the EEC was viewed as incompatible
Member States and the European
Håkan Juholt (HJ): It was constantly for a while, it came and
went for a while. But I never noticed that they disappeared
completely, so from October to January there was always
I: That’s quite a few months.
HJ: Yes, there was always someone. Sometimes there were many,
sometimes only a few photographers.
I: From October to January?
HJ: Yes, there was always someone in the stairwell, always someone
I: In the stairwell?
HJ: In the stairwell. In the beginning they rang the doorbell pretty
regularly, but I think it was SÄPO [the Swedish
Class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic
kept to within three per
cent of GDP and accumulated national debts should be no more than
sixty per cent of GDP. The effect of this measure has been to encourage
national governments to cut back on public spending. Sweden offers a
clear example of the effects of this approach. The welfare state in Sweden
continued to expand through the 1980s but then faced sharp cuts after
Sweden’s accession to the EU in 1995. One commentator described the
effects as follows:
social and public expenditure in Sweden has been reduced in recent years.
There have been cuts to benefits
A critical assessment of work effort in Britain in comparison to Europe
Alan Felstead and Francis Green
’s hours have remained stable. For men,
there was a sharp dip between 2008 and 2009, from 40.7 to 40.1, and since
then they have remained largely stable, not returning to the levels seen prior to
the 2008–09 recession (see Figure 10.2). It should also be noted that official,
Making work more equal