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Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace
Jeffrey Sosland

norm exists, which member states codified in the United Nations Charter, which obligates states to resolve all disputes peacefully. While wars do occur, states are usually hesitant to challenge this principle of international law. In addition, waging war is a complicated prospect. If an upstream state builds a disputed dam, then a more powerful downstream state has a tactical target. Capturing a source

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Simon Mabon

structures, particularly the implications of such a struggle for space and the regulation of life. 93 Marisela Montenegro and Joan Pujol, ‘Introduction: Bordering, Exclusions and Necropolitics’, Qualitative Research Journal, 17:3 (2017), 143. 94 Mbembe, ‘Necropolitics’, p. 17. 95 United Nations, Arab Human Development Report 2016: Youth and the Prospects for Human Development in a Changing Reality (New York: United Nations, 2016), p. 17. 96 Fouad Ajami, ‘The End of Pan-​Arabism’, Foreign Affairs, 57:2 (Winter 1978–​79). 355. 97 Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

hand. The main selection criterion is that the arrangements must have provisions that require attempts at influencing the behaviour of target groups located in Northwestern Russia. Fisheries management The major global instrument underlying systems for marine fisheries management throughout the world is the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC) (United Nations 1982), which entered into force on 16 November 1994. The Convention, with its 320 articles and 9 appendices, deals with a range of issues related to the use and management of the world’s ocean areas.26 Most

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Virtuousness, virtuality and virtuosity in NATO’s representation of the Kosovo campaign
Andreas Behnke

anarchy, wars are to be considered ‘just’ if they are conducted by recognised entities, i.e. sovereign states. As for the justness of the causes and purposes of war, the absence of ‘voice’ renders such judgement impossible. To be sure, the United Nations Charter constitutes a significant intervention into this logic. Article 2.4 of the Charter postulates that states shall refrain from the threat or use of

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Bruce Cumings

, 2017 saw a flurry of long-range missile tests from North Korea, demonstrating its ability to strike the mainland United States. It also saw the tragic death of Otto Warmbier, an American citizen held captive in Pyongyang after being accused of stealing a propaganda sign while on a visit to the country. UN sanctions followed, and in August 2017 Trump asserted that North Korea would be met with ‘fire and fury like the world has never seen’ if it continued to threaten the United States. 26 In his September 2017 address to the United Nations, he threatened ‘to totally

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

2001 by the local authorities after a 26hour siege of his presidential villa in Belgrade.9 On 29 June 2001, he was transferred to the ICTY and detained on remand at the United Nations Detention Unit in Scheveningen, The Hague. He was kept in solitary confinement for a month. Throughout his incarceration he was been subject to constant electronic surveillance. His initial appearances in respect of the indictments took place on 3 July 2001 (the Kosovo indictment), 29 October 2001 (the Croatia indictment), and 11 December 2001 (the Bosnia indictment). II Courtroom

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

 turbulent post-​war period ensued. Until 1947 it was known as the Allied Military Government of Venezia Giulia, divided into Zone A, under British–​American control, and Zone B under the Yugoslavian army. Subsequently, for seven years, the two fiduciary forces controlled the smaller Free Territory of Trieste (FTT); this was the failed project of a buffer state directly controlled by the United Nations, in view of a Roosevelt-​inspired Federation of the World that never took off.3 With the London Memorandum in 1954, the Italian republic and Tito’s Yugoslavia found a t

in Human remains in society
Future Earth, co-production and the experimental life of a global institution
Eleanor Hadley Kershaw

(formed in 2010) comprises the International Council for Science (ICSU); the International Social Science Council; the Belmont Forum of global change research funders; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the United Nations Environment Programme; the United Nations University; and the World Meteorological Organization (see 112 Science and the politics of openness large-scale synthesis of existing research in assessments undertaken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the

in Science and the politics of openness
Stuart Horsman

/capacity development. The awareness in the donor community of the need for creating and strengthening an institutional framework for regional cooperation, based on a clear set of structures and institutional framework, has led to some successes. Both the ICAS and the IFAS were established under international donor pressure to improve regional cooperation on water management policies.48 The World Bank, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and United Nations Environmental Program have been involved with the Central Asian states in the ASBP. The three-phase, 20-year ASBP aims to

in Limiting institutions?
The politics of value and valuation in South Africa’s urban waste sector
Henrik Ernstson, Mary Lawhon, Anesu Makina, Nate Millington, Kathleen Stokes, and Erik Swyngedouw

notorious of these CDM waste-to-landfill projects is the Durban Bisasar Road Landfill project (Bond, 2007 ; Couth et al., 2011 ), but nine other projects have been approved by the South African Designated Authority as of April 2017 (SADNA, 2017 ). Eight were eventually registered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the institutional linchpin for managing the CDM architecture. Thus, a first observation is that while South Africa initially seemed to look like a perfect country for the rolling-out of CDM projects, as it has a

in African cities and collaborative futures