Open Access (free)
Defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva
William G. Naphy

execrable de sodomie sur une aultre femme)’, he strongly advised that the public statement be vague.9 Finally, the clergy at her execution recorded that she admitted to additional lesbian acts.10 The important considerations arising from this case are that her first line of defence was a previously confessed relationship with a man. It is not clear why she attempted to retract this admission since it was manifestly clear that the magistracy knew about it already. They had used questions about her background in an attempt to catch her in the act of perjury or ‘variation

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Justin Champion

freedom and the desacralisation of politics: from the English civil wars to the Virginia Statute’ in Merrill D. Petersen and Robert C. Vaughan 19 MUP/Champion_01_Intro 19 27/2/03, 10:09 am Introduction (eds) The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Cambridge, 1988) pp. 43–73: see also J. G. A. Pocock ‘Post-Puritan England and the problem of the Enlightenment’ in P. Zagorin (ed.) Culture and politics: from Puritanism to the Enlightenment (Berkeley, 1980) and J. G. A. Pocock ‘Clergy and Commerce: the conservative Enlightenment in England’ in L’Eta dei Lumi: Studi

in Republican learning
Libraries, friends and conversation
Justin Champion

books can be seen in the very first surviving letter in Toland’s printed correspondence very possibly written in 1694 to John Locke, an early sponsor of his studies in Oxford. In this letter the young student, fresh from studying in Leiden, described his arrival in Oxford late on a Monday evening in the middle of a tempestuous storm, having narrowly escaped robbery by highwaymen. Having spent the journey in the company of a Fellow of New Hall, ‘a violent partisan of the clergy’, Toland insisted that he was well informed about the ‘abilities, genius and disposition of

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Sovereignty and registration of the laws
John J. Hurt

. Constitutionalist ideas, unrefuted in any thorough way, thus enjoyed a degree of acceptance throughout the French political elite. In the Estates General of 1576, for example, both the clergy and the third estate firmly endorsed the principles of parlementary verification of the laws.9 Meanwhile, the royal administration tried to get its way in the parlements by intervening directly in registration procedure, using as its first weapon a peremptory order called the lettre de jussion. A jussion, the king’s command in writing, should by itself have secured immediate registration of the

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Open Access (free)
The International Arbitration and Peace Association
Heloise Brown

religious spheres, that is, among other women, children and the clergy. Women’s contributions were explicitly confined and constrained. The IAPA took a less divisive stance, arguing that ‘every word in the Journal should be one which men and women may express or receive without distinction’.20 The work of women was accepted as a vital part of the whole picture. The IAPA’s connections with Europe may also have affected its political perspective, as women were generally more influential within the Continental peace societies than they were within the British ones. Concord

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Ben Dew

Implicit in this statement was the suggestion that action against monopolies was required from modern statesmen. Coke also stressed that his motivation for writing the Detection was rooted in his concern for England’s economic interests. He had taken up his pen to convince the various orders of society – listed as nobility, gentry, clergy and merchants – that ‘the Employment of People, and the Freedom of Trade, be the two great Principles of the flourishing and happy State of any Country’.95 Writing in the conclusion to the Detection, Coke observed that ‘I have done, and

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Open Access (free)
Thomas Carte’s General History
Ben Dew

by knights service’ and the smaller grants ‘in common soccage’.97 The results of such reforms were dramatic. As a consequence of James’s actions, Carte argued, Ulster was ‘at present, perhaps, the best cultivated country in Europe’.98 The rents he was able to obtain, meanwhile, ensured that it became a source of considerable government revenue and this, in turn, enabled him to instigate and, in part, to fund a series of reforms to support the clergy. These initiatives were accompanied by a scheme to introduce commerce through granting charters for markets and fairs

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Open Access (free)
The growth and measurement of British public education since the early nineteenth century
David Vincent

condition of a society was a consequence in the first instance of the creation of a functioning state infrastructure. There are isolated instances of systematic recordkeeping at least of reading abilities which stretch back into the early modern period, particularly where protestant churches imposed obligations on their clergy to inspect the condition of their congregations. The most notable case was Sweden’s Church Law of 1686 which required tests of the capacity of families to read the Bible. However, it required the intervention of later twentieth-century historians to

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Katherine Aron-Beller

physical proximity was there between Christians and Jews? Did specific economic relationships affect matters in any way? At a time when subjects were expected to declare their religious allegiances so that the state might supervise them effectively, were ordinary people anxious to maintain visible distinctions between the Jewish outsiders and themselves, or was this imposed from above by magistrates or clergy? The answers to these questions can be found by examining in detail the various testimonies given by Christians and Jews in these trials. The book is divided into

in Jews on trial
German reception of French subsidies in the Thirty Years’ War
Tryntje Helfferich

German Protestantism. Such crossconfessional alliances were equally awkward for the French, who reassured themselves that pragmatism and religious flexibility were necessitated by the Habsburg menace.8 To assuage consciences and court preachers on both sides, therefore, subsidy treaties included various religious assurances for the treatment of conquered areas, such as a promise to allow the free exercise of the other’s religion without any change or innovation, and to leave the local clergy unmolested and in full possession of their properties. Even this was

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789