–West: a new cold war?
The economic and social backwardness of the Soviet Union and its dependent countries as a result of the inherent shortcomings of communism
was becoming apparent amongst both their youth and their elite. Why,
they increasingly asked themselves, did economic conditions not improve, when those in the West seemed to do so constantly? Why could
one not speak freely, criticise one’s government or read what one wished?
Why did the Soviet Union keep Central and Eastern Europe under semicolonial rule when it criticised Western powers for colonialism or
Internationalism, Colonialism, and the Rise of a Medical
Speciality 1890–1930 , Stanford, Stanford University
Press, 2012, pp. 60–5
Hokkanen, Medicine and Scottish
Good, The Steamer Parish , pp.
Civil , translated and
edited by Henry Beauchamp as Hindu Manners, Customs and
Ceremonies , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. The origins and
publication of the manuscript are well described by Nicholas Dirks,
Castes of Mind. Colonialism and the Making of Modern
India , Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2001.
Plunkett, Co-operation and Politics (Gerrards Cross, Bucks.: Colin Smythe, 1986), 76–81.
39 James Loughlin, ‘Russell, Sir Thomas Wallace’, in Dictionary of Irish Biography: From Earliest Times to the Year 2002, Volume 8 , ed. by James McGuire and James Quinn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 665–666. On Russell's early career, see Loughlin, ‘T.W. Russell, the Tenant Farmer Interest and Progressive Unionism in Ulster, 1886–1900’, Eire-Ireland , 25.1 (1990), 44–63.
40 Nicholas Whyte, Science, Colonialism and
Community Medicine? ; S. Murphy, ‘The early days of the MRC Social Medicine Research Unit’, Social History of Medicine , 12:3 (1999), 389–406; V. Berridge, Marketing Health: Smoking and the Discourse of Public Health in Britain, 1945–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 15–16.
86 M. D. Moore, ‘Harnessing the power of difference: colonialism and British chronic disease research, 1940–1975’, Social History of Medicine , 29:2 (2016), 384–404.
87 T. Osborne, ‘Epidemiology as an investigative paradigm: the
Organic economies, logistics, and violence in the pre-industrial
Wayne E. Lee
Montreal, 1985), pp. 263–73.
35 T. E. Davidson, ‘Relations between the Powhatans and the Eastern Shore’, in H. C.
Rountree (ed.), Powhatan Foreign Relations, 1500–1722 (Charlottesville, VA, 1993),
pp. 146–7, 150; W. Strachey, The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612), ed.
L. B. Wright and V. Freund (London, 1953), p. 87; R. D. Ruediger, ‘Tributary Subjects:
Affective Colonialism, Power and the Process of Subjugation in Colonial Virginia,
c.1600–c.1740’ (PhD Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2017), passim.
36 F. Jennings, The Ambiguous Iroquois
level teachers, employees of large companies, etc.), and on the
other, the families of small shop keepers and businessmen who sustained
a ‘traditional’ Arab cultural nationalism and had little economic stake
in the colonial regime. For the pro-French radical liberation of women
would be achieved through integration, a total embrace of republican
secularism and western civilisation, while for the nationalists this goal
would be achieved through revolutionary liberation from colonialism
and a newly independent order.
This division manifested itself during the unveiling
cultural identity. In July 1959 the FLN journal El Moudjahid, closely
reflecting the position of the Ulema and Muslim clergy, claimed that the
French, ‘who moreover are Christian or of the Jewish faith, have dared
to deliberately attack the Koran, in its essence immutable, and to impose
on Algerian Muslims by the sword the secular laws of France, and this
M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 299
Burning the veil
in the most sacred of matters, namely the statut personnel . . . Koranic
law is trampled under the feet of French colonialism’.105 The journal
forms, which must have daunted any
attempt to make sense of the many innovations in science and the arts.
In style and scope, Döblin’s works have most often been compared to
the high modernism of James Joyce and the American John Dos Passos.6
A writer of remarkable diversity and inventiveness, Döblin wrote on an
astonishing range of topics, including the Manchu dynasty in China,
the Thirty Years’ War, modern urban life in Berlin, the 1918 November
Revolution and European colonialism. He penned mostly novels as well
as a few dramas, radio plays and dozens of essays on
Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are the main vehicles by which
globalisation takes place. They have existed for a long time, as has
indeed globalisation itself. What is new is the way they combine with
information and communications technologies to change the world
economy. Their antecedents were the trading companies. In earlier times
these were a driving force behind European colonialism. Their aim was
to collect raw materials or specially sought-after products such as gold,
silver, tea, porcelain or silk and take them back to the home country.