migrants to France slipped from the village at night to put on European clothing before taking the ferry, and reversed this on their return home, see MacMaster, Colonial Migrants, 73. 36 Captain L. P. Fauque, Stades d’évolution de la cellule familiale musulmane d’Algérie, 19, a printed pamphlet (restricted) of the General Government, 20 May 1959: copies can be located at SHAT 1H112/3 or CAOM 2SAS7. 37 There is a considerable literature on the symbolism and politics of the veil: in addition to the seminal work of Edward Said, Orientalism, see for example, Rana Kabbani
to lead the British hospital unit to Serbia in the spring of 1915. Stobart’s motivations behind her immense practical achievements during the war were clearly defined and set out in her description of her time in Serbia, A Flaming Sword in Serbia and Elsewhere, which was published in 1916. In the Preface, she described the stark choice facing humankind: evolution or retrogression. To her, militarism was a retrograde step which would bring the progress of civilisation to a halt.48 ‘The sign-post to devolution is militarism’, she declared, Women and the war 151
devolution of powers chap 5 27/5/03 11:55 am Page 199 Financing the federal system 199 to the Länder, a careful analysis of the decision and its implications for change suggested caution and even skepticism that German federalism would look very different after 2005.121 The commission’s deliberations did not lead to a consensus among the Länder, and by the third week in June 2001 it looked as though the sixteen prime ministers would not be able to come to an agreement. But on June 23 Chancellor Schröder stepped in to break the Gordian knot by offering to have the
devolution of Basuto as a political state from sovereignty to quasi-sovereignty. 54 As the 1901 tour will demonstrate, Moshoeshoe’s successors had few opportunities to challenge the symbolic space of the royal visit. While Moshoeshoe’s political compromise with the British helped preserve some Basuto land for future generations, it created a morass for his successors, who lacked Moshoeshoe’s political
federalisation (Belgium, and Italy in the future?), the granting of autonomy to specific communities (Spain) and devolution (France). Hence, in relative terms, the regional level gained in importance as a policy level vis-à-vis the unitary state … Independist parties hope that the decline of decision-making relevance of the state will facilitate its demise.’ 36 The EU actively supports transfrontier co-operation among its member states, where about 10 per cent live in border regions and roughly half a million cross borders daily to go to work. The so-called ‘Interreg
tell if devolution fulﬁlls its ostensible goals. By mid-2000, President Abdurrahman Wahid had squandered his political capital. In August 2000 he was censured by parliament, and only survived in ofﬁce by apologizing. In February 2001 he once again received a parliamentary censure – which was supported by 86 per cent of legislators in the House of Representatives (DPR). Supposedly at issue was his implication in two ﬁnancial scandals and his alleged refusal to acknowledge the DPR as his constitutional equal. Tainted with corruption and politically isolated, Wahid
the competition law procedure be adopted, a new set of actors will play an important part in the development of separate territories. Under the Commission’s proposals, in addition to the Commission, national courts and regulatory authorities will also be able to apply the exemption criteria outlined in Article 81(3). The devolution of the powers to apply Article 81 will allow the Commission to concentrate on the most serious abuses of competition law. Sport is unlikely to be considered such an important sector. As such, the national courts and competition bodies
This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, explanations of significant political events, groupings and developments.