Open Access (free)
Why might history matter for development policy?
Ravi Kanbur

elite perceives its objectives and its constraints. The strong concern about inequality, especially spatial inequality, in China goes back to well before the communist era. It is rooted in the history of an empire with fissiparous tendencies, requiring force and suasion in equal measure to keep provinces from breaking away. It is that concern which is reflected in generations of Chinese rulers, right up to the present ruling elite of the Communist party. But, again, what is the transmission mechanism from the sensibilities acquired by the rules of the Qing Empire in

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Ben Dew

200 COMMERCE, FINANCE AND STATECRAFT Conclusion The Monthly Review for September 1790 contained a lengthy discussion of the final volume of John Sinclair’s The History of the Public Revenue of the British Empire (1785–90). While appreciative of Sinclair’s work, the anonymous reviewer opened his discussion with some general, and rather less positive, comments on the treatment of financial issues by previous English historians: History, till of late, was chiefly employed in the recital of warlike transactions. […] The people were not known; the circumstances

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Peter H. Wilson

expand and defend empires, whilst also increasing overall numbers that could be deployed globally.11 The risks of conflict were increased, however, because the presence of nationalism combined with the removal of minor states made it harder to make peace through the traditional means of minor territorial adjustments. Meanwhile, the nationalization of warfare meant that, when conflicts broke out, their impact on each belligerent was even greater than before, leading to what has become known as the age of ‘total war’ 1914–1945.12 Fiscal-Military Instruments Fiscal

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Collective violence in colonial Spanish
Anthony McFarlane

. Indeed, in the Americas, armed violence – invariably organized by individuals who acted in the monarch’s name, rather 106 Part II: Restraint and excess than directly by the state – was crucial to the foundation of Spain’s empire. First, European weaponry and tactics, unknown to indigenous peoples, gave Spaniards a military edge that enabled them to assert control and establish permanent colonies of settlement, built on systems of coerced labour. Secondly, the economic resources won by Spaniards fed back into Europe, where they provided the means to build state

in A global history of early modern violence
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The predicament of history
Bill Schwarz

intellectual life which emerged. As we have argued, the West Indians were colonial Britons who experienced the civilisation of the British, in Britain, from a very particular vantage. It is the resultant perspectives on British civilisation that we’ve attempted to retrieve in the preceding chapters. Here were generations of West Indians encountering the civilisation of the empire in its very heartlands, who

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Sabine Clarke

industry was prompted by the crisis in the British Empire in the 1930s. The Great Depression had shown that too many of Britain’s colonies were dependent on a narrow range of agricultural exports, making them highly vulnerable to the fluctuations of the world market. 6 The encouragement of colonial industry was a way to solve the issues of unemployment and low living standards. In further contrast to the recommendations of the interwar period, Stanley claimed that the new policy for industrialisation would not prioritise the interests of British manufacturers. New

in Science at the end of empire
Johan Östling

3 The discovery of Humboldt There were nineteen universities in the German Empire when it was proclaimed in 1871. During the almost fifty years that followed, up until the outbreak of the First World War, the number of students quadrupled. During the same period several institutes of technology and schools of economics were founded, but only three new universities: Strasbourg in 1872, Münster in 1902, and Frankfurt am Main in 1914. Higher education was, strictly speaking, a matter for the individual constituent states; but the university as an institution was

in Humboldt and the modern German university
John Marriott

for severe retribution to ‘re-establish that empire of opinion; – that conviction of our supremacy, and of the irresistible superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, on which the rule of the British in India depended’. Blame for the outrages was placed firmly at the door of the Company. It has pursued ‘worldly gain’ at the cost of promotion of Christianity. Only the ‘simple operation of wise and good

in The other empire
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Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain

systems that were unfolding. We turn our attention to this specific aspect of colonial rule in these newly forged aggregations – to how first British and then settler governments addressed the question of Indigenous peoples’ political rights. In demonstrating critical links between similar types of colonial formation in vastly different parts of the Empire, we argue that the ways in which Britain and the individual colonies

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
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Alison Rowlands

Holy Roman Empire. This meant that Rothenburg was autonomous, its city council subject to no higher authority other than that of the Holy Roman Emperor himself. As a result, the sixteen-member city council, constituted as the criminal court for Rothenburg and its rural hinterland, had the right to try all crimes committed by its subjects or on its territory, including cases of witchcraft. From the mid-sixteenth century the council appointed university-educated jurists to municipal posts and drew on their advice in particularly problematic legal cases, although the

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany