Open Access (free)
Portraying the exhumation and reburial of Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in the pages of yizkor books
Gabriel N. Finder

who returned to Wierzbnik after liberation in 1945. He had been the head of Wierzbnik’s Jewish Council before the German liquidation of the ghetto. He made his way to Starachowice and discovered the bodies of those killed in and under the barracks during its liquidation and those killed on the edge of the camp during their failed escape attempt. Uppermost on his mind was to exhume and rebury them, a task for which he recruited an additional survivor. ‘As a first and sacred obligation [ershter un heyliker khov] we Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in yizkor books   43

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
Reading SimCity
Barry Atkins

’s phrase, we have no ‘sense of an ending’.1 It is the intensity of this apparent liberation from any form of clearly emplotted narrative, its foregrounding of the ‘open-ended’ rather than ‘closed’ experience on offer that was only hinted at in the other game-fictions discussed so far, that is so fascinating in SimCity. In some ways SimCity is far more exemplary of this alternative open-ended method of engaging with computer-based texts than the other specific titles I focus on, and resembles traditional narrative forms the least. How this can be thought through as a form

in More than a game
Open Access (free)
Why anarchism still matters
James Bowen and Jonathan Purkis

reveals the existence (and frequent coexistence) of mutualists, communists, collectivists, syndicalists and individualists during the heyday of ‘classical anarchism’ between 1860 and 1939. Moreover, these versions of anarchism offered different interpretations of the classical principles outlined above. In this respect we note the endurance of a number of debates: the relative importance of individual versus collective liberation; the option to prioritise manifestations of political or economic power; and the eternal dilemma of whether the right road of change must be

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

included students, ethnic minorities and others on the fringes of society. Marcuse’s analysis held a particular attraction for young people, since he associated economic and political liberation with cultural and sexual freedom. By the 1990s, however, his influence had waned as economic crises within the capitalist system and the triumph of consumer capitalism undermined the revolutionary potential of the very groups he had

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Criminality during the occupation
James E. Connolly

juridical documents; engaging in criminal acts undermined the collective good, removing social goods from their legitimate owners and thus fracturing the social relations underpinning the moral economy itself. For them, criminal misconduct threatened the stability and survival of local areas, not just during the occupation but also after the liberation. The role of the French police in 1914–​18 thus provides an important insight into both occupation criminality and the culture of the occupied. Policing In November 1918, the Commissaire de Police of Condé

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

compromised’. 6 Two decades later, during the July Monarchy (1830–48), the historian François Guizot, as French Foreign Minister, maintained that ‘[n]o State has the right to intervene in the affairs and government of another State so long as its interest and proper security do not render this intervention indispensable’. 7 The opposite, intervention to assist liberation movements, resurfaced in the early days of the July Monarchy with Lafayette

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Atul Bhardwaj

raison d’être to secure maritime commons and reassert American hegemony. In 2012, Admiral Jonathan Greenert, the US Navy Chief of Naval Operations argued that the Asia Pacific was a maritime region and that sea power underwrote America’s rebalancing to the region. 11 The Navy got the green light to curtail the growing maritime ambitions of China’s People’s Liberation Army-Navy (PLAN) in particular, and effectively counter its anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) strategies. Plans were soon afoot to position 60 per cent of US naval assets, including the Carrier Strike Group

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Washington’s painful search for a credible China policy
Börje Ljunggren

tall in the East’, and that now it is time for the nation ‘to take center stage in the world and to make a greater contribution to humankind’. China’s road to modernisation, he said, was ‘offering a new option for other countries’. 5 In an amendment to the party constitution, it was stated that the Chinese Communist Party should ‘uphold its absolute leadership over the People’s Liberation Army’ and ‘implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military’. 6 By the mid-twenty-first century, China’s people’s armed forces would be ‘fully transformed into world

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Obama’s legacy in US China Policy
Peter Gries

’ (百年国耻) at the hands of European and Japanese imperialism. 28 The placement of countdown clocks in public squares in cities all across China in the years leading up to the Games manufactured an intense personal desire for redemption and recognition among ordinary Chinese. The Games themselves were virtually flawless. The Opening Ceremony, directed by filmmaker Zhang Yimou, was on an awe-inspiring scale, featuring 2008 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) performers and spectacular visual effects. The performance highlighted China’s five millennia old “Brilliant Civilisation

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
UK and Swiss initiatives to open up animal laboratory research
Carmen M. McLeod

addition, the Animal Liberation Front began publishing warnings that individuals associated with the new building (including building contractors and suppliers) ‘were going to get some’ (Animal Liberation Front communiqué posted on their Bite Back website, cited by Monaghan, 2013: 938). Two incidents stand out in this historical narrative for their monstrous and distressing nature, because they involved grave robbing. In 2004 a campaign of intimidation was carried out against the Hall family who owned Darley Oaks Farm (breeding guinea pigs) in Staffordshire. This

in Science and the politics of openness