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Young Palestinian men encountering a Swedish introductory programme for refugees
Nina Gren

or perhaps a TOEFL. In my interviews with the caseworkers, dreams of higher education are often taken rather lightly as long as the refugee in question is not already highly educated within a shortage occupation, such as medicine. If discussed at all, higher education is referred to the time after the introductory programme. Besides, there are no funds that are earmarked for expenses such as the TOEFL in the budget of the SPES. According to 174 Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies Amir, he has been financially punished by the system for not having

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
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Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

to the fact that it could expand on adjacent waste land and invest in the latest cargo-handling facilities. The Soviet Union, which exacted more war reparations on its occupation zone in Germany (as from 1949 the German Democratic Republic) and Austria than the Western victorious powers, by contrast found itself in possession of older industrial plant. Reconciliation in Western Europe – as opposed to the sub-surface hostility and suspicion that prevailed in Central and Eastern Europe between the ‘Soviet satellites’ and the Soviet Union itself – was greatly helped

in Destination Europe
Jewish emancipation and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

habit of noble feelings … to debase him in his activities … to choke every sense of honour in his heart’. He argued that ‘everything the Jews are blamed for is caused by the political conditions under which they now live’ and that ‘any group of men, under such conditions, would be guilty of identical errors’. He put it in material terms: ‘every kind of occupation and trade has some special effects on the way of thinking and the moral character’ of those who

in Antisemitism and the left
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory
Jeremy C.A. Smith

continuous, however. Periods of broken occupation of particular islands ended with fresh arrivals. Islander memory and myth records waves of migration such as these. There is evidence also in the archaeological record. Moreover, stratified chiefdoms created in a process of state formation were significant factors in the twelfth-​to thirteenth-​ century shift in migratory patterns. Territorial polities cropped up in the eleventh and twelfth centuries in Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Hawaii and Tonga. Stratified state organisations and practices emanated to smaller

in Debating civilisations
Liesbeth Hesselink

7 The early years of nursing in the Dutch East Indies, 1895–1920 Liesbeth Hesselink Before 1900 there were almost no trained nurses to be found in the Dutch East Indies. Medical progress called for qualified nurses. Initially, the solution seemed to lie in importing nurses from the Netherlands, but as they proved reluctant to travel to the colony, it was decided to attempt to train local people instead: (Indo-) European and Indonesian,1 male and female. Remarkably, while nursing was, typically, considered a woman’s occupation in the mother country, the training

in Colonial caring
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Portraying the exhumation and reburial of Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in the pages of yizkor books
Gabriel N. Finder

remains exposed, manhandled, dismembered, and strewn helter-skelter. In other words, under the Nazi occupation of Poland from 1939 to 1945, the Germans and their accomplices turned Poland into a boundless graveyard of their Jewish victims, with the corpses of Jews buried unceremoniously in mass graves, partially buried, or simply left unburied. This is what Polish Jewish survivors encountered when they returned to or emerged from hiding in their home towns in the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust. Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in yizkor books   35 Domicile in

in Human remains and identification
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Nicholas Atkin

. These were implicit in the cult of Pétainism and the circumstances of the Occupation. How far the various French groups in Britain eventually came to disassemble Pétainist mythology remains decidedly unclear. The fact that, after Montoire, neither the British nor the French press in London chose to make personal attacks on the marshal, regarding these as counterproductive, preferring instead to highlight his impotency and shortcomings of judgement, may well have facilitated this deconstruction process. In this way, it was possible for the French in Britain to express

in The forgotten French
Explaining foreign policy variation
Raymond Hinnebusch

. Origins of the state Saudi Arabia was founded by the al-Saud clan’s dual mobilisation of tribal military power and the Wahhabi Islamic movement. Unlike most Middle Eastern countries, the state was, thus, founded by indigenous forces, never experienced an imperialist occupation or protectorate and was therefore spared the accompanying collaboration with imperialism that often discredited traditional elites. This does not mean that Saudi state-building was a wholly indigenous product, for the impoverished Arabian peninsula lacked the economic

in The international politics of the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

lands. Despite some short-term inflammation of radical public sentiment, the 1967 defeat, in giving a mortal blow to Pan-Arab dreams, started the process of Arab acceptance of the permanence, if not the legitimacy, of Israel. Egypt’s defeat precipitated a realist pragmatism in the hegemonic Arab state as Nasser himself began looking to mend relations with the US and to find a diplomatic solution to the Israeli occupation (Gerges 1994: 228, 236); Asad’s rise in Syria marked a similar moderation of nationalism there. Radical Arab states that had challenged Israel on

in The international politics of the Middle East
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Cultural and political change in 1960s Britain
Steven Fielding

, moreover, steepest in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations – those with the lowest pay and most insecure conditions (see Tables 1.1. and 1.2). Observers believed this meant the future lay with administrators, technicians and secretaries, those who thought of themselves as middle class – even when their incomes were often inferior to those of skilled manual workers. On the eve of the 1960s, the working class was richer than ever before. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, a male workers’ average income rose by a third in real terms; the proportion of households owning

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1