Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

noblewomen and power 7 Seals Representation, image and identity here are over 145 extant secular women’s seals from the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.1 They present the historian with unique opportunities to study the portrayal of female identity in twelfth-century England. Seals were visual representations of power, and they conveyed notions of authority and legitimacy. They publicly presented a view of both men and women which visibly crystallised ideas about gender, class and lordship. The modern historian of seals owes a considerable debt to

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Laura Chrisman

capitalism penetrated the region and disrupted already contested power relations within the homestead. (p. 233) She regards King Solomon’s Mines as deriving from Haggard’s 1870s sojourn as a colonial administrator in Natal. The novel, accordingly, chapter2 21/12/04 11:09 am Page 40 40 Imperialism reflects Natal’s operations against the self-determining Zulu kingdom. Crucial to this non-capitalist Zulu political economy was the productive labour of its women, organised through polygyny. Recognising this, colonialists targeted polygyny and imposed taxes that forced

in Postcolonial contraventions
Washington’s painful search for a credible China policy
Börje Ljunggren

an added boost to its rapid economic growth. Today, China is the largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), by far the world’s largest trading nation in goods, and a potential world leader in key future technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In terms of alliances China may be “a lonely power”, but it is pursuing an increasingly pro-active role, taking advantage of strategic opportunities and launching initiatives of its own. These include the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

also always existed in an ‘international society’ with trade, diplomacy, law, morality and, inevitably, war, shaping their relations. state A political association that establishes sovereign power within a defined territorial area and possesses a monopoly of legitimate violence. The modern state arose from the break-up of European Christendom during the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Raymond Hinnebusch

This book and the study of the Middle East This study takes the Middle East to be constituted around an Arab core, with a shared identity but fragmented into multiple territorial states; the core is flanked by a periphery of non-Arab states – Turkey, Iran and Israel – which are an intimate part of the region’s conflicts and an integral part of its balance of power (Cantori and Spiegel 1970; Ismael 1986: 5–13). Because the Middle East’s unique features defy analyses based on any one conceptual approach to international

in The international politics of the Middle East
America and Trump in the Asia Pacific
Ketan Patel and Christian Hansmeyer

Introduction The United States under Donald Trump has been charting a radically new course in Asia, a region that has long relied on America for stability and maintaining the balance of power. In the first half of his presidential term of 2017–21, the forty-fifth president reversed or sought to reverse many of the long-standing policies and initiatives pursued by Barack Obama and his predecessors, with potential long-term implications. A multilateral and multifaceted engagement strategy in the region is being replaced by a transactional approach to security

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Enver Kisriev

the Republic could be held by a ‘national’ was only in 1989, in the later phase of Gorbachev’s perestroika. It was held by the Chechen Doku Zavgaev. At the same time, the First Secretary of the republican CPSU organisation received his post not from the hands of Moscow, as it had been always and everywhere, but contrary to the Central Committee’s recommendation, in the course of internal conflicts in the republican CPSU organisation and on a wave of glasnost and ‘democratisation’. This aspect of Chechnya’s political history, namely that the first Chechen came to power

in Potentials of disorder
Susan M. Johns

place of individuals within kin groups.5 Further White stresses that as land transfers became more like sales by the early thirteenth century, and with the introduction of warranty clauses, the need for laudatio parentum declined because an effective method of cutting off family claims had been achieved.6 This discourse on the meaning of countergifts rightly debates the juridical implications and their symbolisms within social contexts. Little has specifically been written which directly addresses the problem of interpreting countergifts as a guide to the power of

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Language games in the Kosovo war
Mika Aaltola

’ construction of the Kosovo phenomenon, in both Western and Serbian discourses. In particular, I consider how power can be derived from the art of repetition – i.e. how ‘security’ can be created and maintained by sticking to a single message and spreading it as widely as possible. To the average spectator, one of the most noticeable features of the Kosovo war has been the non-stop repetition of certain key

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Susan M. Johns

noblewomen and power 8 Women of the lesser nobility n 1180 bertram, the chamberlain of Earl Hugh II of Chester, married Mabel, the heiress of William Flamenc, and by grant of charter received her inheritance. Little is known of the origins of Bertram, and likewise the descent of Mabel’s inheritance, from the time of Robert of Rhuddlan, who held the manor of Great Meols in 1066, is also obscure.1 What is clear, however, is that Bertram’s service in his lord’s household as chamberlain was rewarded with marriage to an heiress. Earl Hugh was here evidently

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm