, Marxism allocates priority to the latter while the memory
Transnationalism and race
of slavery insists on the priority of the former. Their convergence is
also undercut by the simple fact that in the critical thought of blacks
in the West, social self-creation through labour is not the centrepiece of emancipatory hopes. For the descendants of slaves, work signifies only servitude, misery, and subordination. Artistic expression,
expanded beyond recognition from the grudging gifts offered by the
masters as a token substitute for
agenda. In a fascinating
historical analysis, Moran observes that “second wave feminism has failed to give full
recognition to single women as a distinct constituency with unique needs” (ibid.,
224–225). Feminism, she continues, has indeed lobbied for economic and political
equality and independence for women, yet seems never to have come to grips with the
possibilities of emotional individuality that are not incorporated within family and
marriage structures (ibid., 225).
I find Moran’s observation applicable also to feminist theory and activism in general.
To a large
commitment” by helping with the building project
of repairing their dock. By spending time in the space and working on a
communal project with this group, Teun demonstrated his gratitude, that
he was communally minded, and possessed squatter skills.
Showing commitment is tricky because it’s
ambiguous, open to interpretation, depends on the person who purposely
“shows commitment,” and the recognition of the people to whom one endeavors to show commitment.
In a living group, showing commitment often signifies investment
‘different but equal’
culture, Lentin (2014: 1275–76) argues, has obscured the experience of racism
and reduced the struggle for equality and justice to a fight for the recognition of
From a political perspective, in the post-9/11 context, multiculturalism is
increasingly interpreted as ‘part of the problem not the solution’ (Kundnani, 2004:
108) to racism and ethnic discrimination. In this understanding the ‘problem’ is
not inequality or deprivation of ‘minority’ communities but self-imposed cultural
barriers between communities that hinder the full
The past, present and future of the English Defence League
expressed mixed emotions. One, very drunk,
demonstrator pronounced that the former leadership had been ‘bought off’ and at
one point the familiar chant of ‘Tommy Robinson’s barmy army’ (see Chapter 7)
rang out as ‘Tommy Robinson’s Muslim army’ (field diary 12 October 2013).
Alongside the anger there was widespread recognition of the pressures the leadership had been under (from past and pending prosecutions, threats and intimidation and financial difficulties). Indeed, it was not so much the decision to resign
that shocked people but the suddenness and manner in which it
‘One big family’: emotion, affect
and the meaning of activism
Following discussion of the ideological dimensions of EDL activism (Chapters 4
and 5) and of the particular ‘injustice frame’ (Jasper, 1998: 398) of ‘second-class
citizens’ underpinning the rationalised meanings attached to EDL activism
(Chapter 6), attention turns here to the emotional and affective dimensions of
activism. The recent rehabilitation of ‘the emotional’ in the field of social movement studies has led to a recognition that emotionality does not equate to irrationality (1998: 398) and
simple and stylish food’, that is the real thing), existing alongside it, but gradually will develop into an independent form of an activity with a particular
Qualities of food
etiquette of its own. One could probably claim that in our societies such
segmentation processes have been greatly accelerated, at least within freetime activities: for instance, in the world of sport new sub-worlds seem to
emerge all the time and at an accelerating tempo, often also demanding
official recognition as legitimate games (there is, for
quality has been one of food
safety, notably microbial food safety, for the consumer. Beyond that, there are
distinctions to be found at the UK and EU levels, but there is some commonality also. Food authenticity and provenance are emerging issues. The valueadded aspects of food quality within a liberalising (but still far from perfectly
competitive) international trade are recognised, as part of a linking of food
production to its consumption. Such recognition is framed within an adherence to the liberal trade paradigm, where national (or regionally integrated
in recognition of his tract against Luther. Religion still followed the monarch rather than vice versa, but though there was no novelty in religious dispute under Henry and his successors Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, a conflict between the religious identity of the sovereign and that of subjects would frequently be resolved by imprisonment, death, or exile.
The civil wars of the seventeenth century revealed how far a clash of religious identities, and the other aspects of identity with which religion was interwoven, could threaten the
public , 5 (1898), 664–5.
A. de Lapradelle, ‘Chronique sur les affaires de
Cuba’, Revue de droit publique et de science politique en France et
à l’étranger , 1 (1900), 75.
A. S. Hershey, ‘Intervention and the Recognition of
Cuban Independence’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science , 11 (1898), 58, 77