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Open Access (free)
Bronwen Price

direction’ of ‘physical studies’ in the preface to the second edition of that text,38 while in the next century Karl Marx praised ‘the celebration of work and technical skill’ in the New Atlantis.39 However, in the latter part of the nineteenth century Bacon’s work was discredited for what was perceived as its failure to combine hypotheses with its inductive approach. In this respect, the influence of Baconian methods on scientific innovators, such as Newton, was questioned, and from this period the significance of Bacon’s contribution to modern science was challenged.40

in Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis
Ad Putter

Middle English romancers adapted material purposefully (and not just haphazardly); and, secondly, it emphasises that the impoverishment of some codes in popular romance is compensated for by the reinforcement of another. For instance, because the proairetic code is end-oriented, its dominance produces little description yet powerful closure, and it is no coincidence that in this respect many English romances (e.g. Amis and Amiloun) are more decisive than the French. The Percyvell-poet is, as I hope to show, a master of the proairetic code: he is clear about where the

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Eric Pudney

University Press, 1993), pp. 213–15. Thormählen shows that Rochester was not merely a ‘small pretender’ to learning, although he was undoubtedly somewhat ‘loose’. 262 Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama belief in society more generally, witchcraft as a symbol of rebellion is often treated seriously. In this limited respect, warnings by Glanvill, More, and Casaubon that dismissing witchcraft was a threat to the civil government as well as to the principles of established religion seem to find some dramatic support. The later seventeenth century was the last

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Steve Sohmer

heaven or hell. 16 Marking the anniversary of a loved one’s death, perhaps first commended to early Christians by Tertullian (AD 211), remained then as now a rite of respect for the deceased and a salutary exercise for the living. This tradition of annual commemorations, commonplace in early Tudor England, may have lost its standing in the liturgy but remained bright in living

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Father– daughter incest and the economics of exchange
Jenny DiPlacidi

’s work was shaped by contemporary novels and political allegories of which he would certainly have been aware. 41 Walpole described his writing of Otranto as a type of therapy ‘during a particularly bad year in parliament’, which evidences his recognition of the tale’s function as a political parody. Sue Chaplin examines ‘the fictions of origin Walpole himself generated in respect of this aberrant

in Gothic incest
Ghosts and the busy nothing in Footfalls
Stephen Thomson

the glamour of the transcendental, and the derisory materiality of rags and wicker rackets, is what Footfalls cultivates. The thickness of the text of Footfalls, not least its thuddingly thematic link to ghostliness, is necessary to maintain the indecision of the uncanny; the emergence of the strange within the very heart of the homely. Walking itself, indeed, is capacious of all these possibilities. Indeed, in this respect, literature may be said to ‘A tangle of tatters’ 79 mirror a movement afoot in philosophy. In an enormously suggestive article on what she

in Beckett and nothing
Open Access (free)
Lucy Munro

1 Staging taste Lucy Munro Thomas Randolph’s The Muses’ Looking Glass, first performed by the Children of the Revels around 1630, features a character called Acolastus, a semi-­ allegorical caricature of a ‘voluptuous Epicure, that out of an immoderate, and untam’d desire seekes after all pleasures promiscuously, without respect of honest or lawfull’. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Acolastus is obsessed with taste, and he delivers a paean to his favourite sensory experience: Foole was he that wish’d but a cranes short neck. Give me one, nature, long as is a Cable, Or

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Staging visual clues and early modern aspiration
Jackie Watson

Aristotelian mode and fixes hearing, and especially sight, as superior: those senses are allied to the mind. His explanation of sight’s perfection is in religious terms. He lists four reasons for sight’s supremacy, the first three of which clearly link seeing with virtue and bring this sense closer to God. The fourth has a moral quality of its own; sight is perfect ‘in respect of the certaintie of his action’ (p. 13). This belief in the veracity of visual perception, and its ability to convey truth to the mind, is developed further, and du Laurens establishes his reasons for

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
An examination of touching moments in dance of court and courtship
Darren Royston

’ (p. 165). For this reason, being able to see the eyes of his partner during dance was important, so Arena insists that there should be torches when dancing at night (p. 165). Respect for the lady must be made by only using moderate force when leading with the hand, so as not to give her any cause for complaint (p. 157). In practice, this involves subtle changes of muscle tension in the leading hand, to create an unspoken understanding between the dancing partners: different instructions are interpreted from the intensity of the grip, the manipulation of the fingers

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
Simon Smith

­Harpsicord, with two treble Violins; on the other side somewhat neerer the skreene were plac’t 9. Violins and three Lutes, and to answere both the Consorts (as it were in a triangle) sixe Cornets, and sixe Chappell voyces, were seated almost right against them, in a place raised higher in respect of the pearcing sound of those ­Instruments.17 His emphasis on the visible layout of the musicians ‘as it were in a triangle’, and their presence in front of the screen in the key line of sight from the ‘chaire of State’ confirms the common expectation of clear visual engagement

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660