upon an exorcism of colonialism. Nevertheless, Fanon treats these
‘traditions’ instrumentally. Keen to escape the dialectical traps
laid down by the lord/massa, Fanon cannot consider the drum beats as
aspects of living knowledge traditions. Indeed, we should not forget
that for Fanon drums are the ultimate fetish that white people have
used to entrap him in an unhuman blackness, a zone of non
to Latin America by the long
shadow of colonialism is a frequent one of popular literature. As a result of the
Conquest, Latin American cultures are marked by a peripheral mood of abandonment. Estranged from autochthonous roots –and at the same time also from
the promises of modernity –Latin America is ‘not quite anywhere, its search for
identity necessarily following a labyrinthine path’ (Schelling, 2000: 9). How did
post-war modernists confront the condition of searching for a place in the world?
The image of labyrinthine quest is made explicit in the
Human Consequences (Cambridge:
Polity, 1998), p. 1.
McMillan, p. 22.
Tom Kilroy, ‘A Generation of Playwrights’, in Eamonn Jordan (ed.),
Theatre Stuff: Critical Essays on Contemporary Irish Theatre (Dublin:
Carysfort, 2000), pp. 1–7. 3. Article first published in Irish University
Murray, p. 162.
Kilroy, p. 6.
Marianne McDonald, ‘Classics as Celtic Firebrand: Greek Tragedy, Irish
Playwrights, and Colonialism’, in Jordan (ed.), Theatre Stuff, p. 16.
Harvey O’Brien, review of A Cry From Heaven in Irish Theatre Magazine
5: 24 (2005), p. 51.
O’Brien, p. 52.
evidence of the importance of its
adaptability. Literature on colonialism that generalizes about the
colonizing process often implies a rupture in political rule or an event
of cultural resistance as the defining moment in the identity of a
nation. As the country’s hegemonic identity has been controlled by
Canada’s Anglo-Celtic immigrants from the imperial centre,
attempting to impose a white settler
Cannadine, ‘The Context, Performance and
Meaning of Ritual’, 120–1.
Cannadine, Ornamentalism , 4.
Bernard Cohn, Colonialism and Its Forms of
Knowledge (Princeton, 1996); Nicholas Dirks, Castes of
Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern
this internal colonialism
and the rapid social and economic disruption that accompanied it continue to be felt (for scholarly works on these dynamics, see Alfred, 1995;
Mitchell, 1996; Shkilnyk, 1985; Irlbacher-Fox, 2009; Vitebsky, 2005).
A passage from Hugh Brody’s book The Other Side of Eden gives one
vivid illustration of the colonial legacy. Brody was collecting interviews
for a film in northern British Colombia, amongst the Nisga’a people. He
decided to interview an artist assisting with the film, George Gosnell,
about his experience in the residential school
occurred at the same time that settler colonialism and Atlantic slavery began, and European trading companies (not only the best known, like the British and Dutch East India Companies, but also those as short-lived as Courland's (Dzenovska 2013 )) were expanding colonial power, a comparative history of empire might ask how far Habsburg or Ottoman imperialisms were informed by the notions fuelling Spanish, Portuguese, British, French, Dutch, Danish or Swedish colonial power overseas. Such questions, essential for decolonial longue-durée perspectives on south-east Europe
, in contrast to the religiously mixed but predominantly Muslim Indonesians. This Catholicism reflects in part the bequest of Portuguese colonialism, but more potently stands as a rejection of an Indonesian identity.
It is sometimes suggested that the period of Portuguese rule was one of benign neglect. The neglect is indisputable – little effort at development or the provision of services was made until the 1950s. By 1973 the illiteracy rate of the East Timorese was estimated at 93 per cent, and infant mortality in the 1950s (1960s’ and 1970s
mythologies of Indian culture. As Parama Roy puts it:
There is an ongoing and strenuous endeavour in
the discourse of thuggee to interpellate the thug as an
essence, a move which attests to the anxiety of rupture that
subtends the totalizing epistemologies of colonialism. Yet the
thug as discursive object is strikingly resistant to such
Migrants were economic agents, whether as labourers, consumers or traders.
Bearing and exchanging goods, however conceived, involved exchanging values, especially when exchanges have been in inter-cultural contexts. The impact
of early modern trade can be no less evident than in the example of inter-
continental dispersion and circulation of species of flora and fauna stimulated by
colonialism. But, then again the length and strength of the chains of connection
that finance lubricated –even before the rise of Italian banking –is surprising