before; but in two large areas
of the continent, things developed in a different direction.6 In France
the autonomy of the universities was completely circumscribed, and
they were subordinated to the power of the political regime. Collèges
and traditional faculties were replaced by a series of professional and
special schools. Nevertheless, some older institutions, such as Collège
de France, survived both the Revolution and Napoleon; and it was
vid tyska universitet 1750–1810’, Lychnos, 2014; Chad Wellmon, Organizing Enlightenment: Information Overload and the
periods, or attended school in France. Pattinson, Behind Enemy
12 Pattinson, Behind Enemy Lines, 139.
13 Pattinson, Behind Enemy Lines, see particularly Chapter 6: ‘“The best disguise”: Performing femininities’.
14 Michael Traynor, Maggie Boland and Niels Buus, ‘Autonomy, evidence and
intuition: Nurses and decision‐making‘, Journal of Advanced Nursing 66, 7
15 C.M.S. Baker, ‘Aftermath of war, September 1945’, IWM Documents 6341,
14. ‘HOME’ in upper case in the original.
16 Morgan, ‘Still with the lamp’, letter 9 (November 1941
environment in which the needs of the soldier as part of the machine
of war were paramount, nursing sisters developed their use of self as
part of the corporeal armoury of their work. Second, they developed
a confidence in their use of humour to encourage recovery and to
alleviate pain and promote well-being. Third, they used their newly
formed, more collaborative relationships with medical staff to create
greater autonomy of practice.
The use of self as an ideological tool of European femaleness and
a way of encouraging continuation with fighting is more complex
an evaluation centre for schools.
Both the Maudsley Hospital and the Tavistock Clinic then began to
achieve a higher level of autonomy in the research they conducted
and the cases they received. In 1946, John Bowlby was appointed to
head the Child Department of the Tavistock, the same year that the
institution came under the auspices of the NHS and expanded its
to provide for the safety and proper discipline of the
persons employed in or about’ their mines.117 Managers and owners exploited
legislators’ injunction to ensure the ‘proper discipline’ of workers to its fullest.
From the mid-1850s onwards, special rules were increasingly used at collieries
to curtail the autonomy of mineworkers, much to their annoyance. To ensure
compliance, moreover, supervision of the workforce increased.118 Such developments, while pertaining to the safety of all mineworkers, helped to reduce
‘somatic flexibility’ in mining and may have made
Literary satire and Oskar Panizza’s Psichopatia criminalis (1898)
succeeded, not only
would this have been a considerable affirmation for the autonomy of
the arts and of literature, but also he would have symbolically repealed
the much older sentence against his father, whose decision to allow his
children to be raised in the Protestant faith was revoked by the court. In
his own court case, Panizza insisted on defending himself, and called as an
expert witness the founder of the modernist Munich journal Die Gesell
schaft (Society), Michael Georg Conrad, to which Panizza contributed
regularly.66 For his defence Panizza prepared a
examples of cruelty, mismanagement, undue thrift or inappropriate largesse were taken as indications that the system was faulty
in design and negligently executed. The Webbs undertook a
painstaking progress through 400 years of welfare history spread
over two volumes and found much to criticise at every point. They
concluded that legislation was merely cited to bolster local autonomy in matters of relief, leading to severity of attitude and no
continuity of treatment towards the poor, while an absence of
legal amendment was castigated as neglect. Marshall in contrast
. See Maitland and Baildon, The Court Baron,
58 Such as Altrincham, Cheshire, which developed from the manor of Dunham
59 Jewell (ed.), Court Rolls, pp. 155–7.
60 See A. Musson, Medieval Law in Context. The Growth of Legal Consciousness from
Magna Carta to the Peasants’ Revolt (Manchester and New York, 2001), pp. 85–
Trials in manorial courts
61 Jewell (ed.), Court Rolls, pp. 3–4.
62 C. Dyer, Lords and Peasants in a Changing Society: The Estates of the Bishopric of
Winchester (Cambridge, 1980), p. 268.
63 See e.g. McIntosh, Autonomy
there are any conclusions to be drawn from a comparison of the role of Clemencia with
those of the earlier countesses, it would seem that the countess, as wife,
is less visible in charter evidence. Clemencia, as wife, appears in charters
giving her consent, and may have received religious benefits, but she
played no role in witnessing her husband’s charters, unlike the earlier
twelfth-century countesses. It was as a widow that she granted her own
charters, again reflecting the greater autonomy of the widow’s powers
The charter evidence has shown how in
106 Foucault, Discipline and Punish . As was the case for patients: Sinding, ‘Flexible norms?’
107 These were tools for cultivating the self-managing self: D. Willems, ‘Managing one's body using self-management techniques: practicing autonomy’, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics , 21:1 (2000), 23–38.
108 Kratky, ‘An audit of the care of diabetics in one general practice’, pp. 536–7.
109 B. Essex, ‘Records and audit’, in RCGP, Clinical Information Folder , appendix 19, p. 1