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Nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism

the Society, including Bogue and Anglicans Thomas and John Clarkson (who had, like the founders of the society, been active in the antislavery agitation and other reform causes). The founders thus combined their religious arguments with liberal and humanitarian ideas to argue 45 ‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ that all wars were unchristian and immoral. This starting point remained the ideological basis of the Society until well into the twentieth century, by which time its influence and significance had considerably declined.7 As Alan D. Gilbert has shown

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
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research does not bear out the comfortable liberal assumption that the history of the franchise is always one of simple linear progress over time – that once voting rights have been gained by particular groups, they are never lost and can only be added to by the widening of the qualified pool or the enfranchising of further groups. In the British colonies of settlement, this has not been the case. At the

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
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to the destructive ‘fiery conviction’ of the war years. In addition, Russell’s concerns were echoed, often independently, by other individuals, whether celebrated or obscure. The ground was being laid for the organised voice of historian Martin Ceadel’s ‘humanitarian pacifism’ of the 1920s and 1930s.16 It is clear that aesthetic and 228 A war of individuals humanistic anti-war feeling was not simply an inter-war ‘innovation’, but existed much earlier during the actual conflict and emanated from differing sources on an individual basis in its expression. The

in A war of individuals
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Britain’s status as an imperial power. Antoinette Burton’s Burdens of History has convincingly argued that in Victorian Britain, nation and empire were effectively one and the same, and allegiances to each were ‘concentric and mutually dependent’.6 She has shown how the construction of the imperial nation was reliant on an external ‘other’ against which it was defined, suggesting that this conflation of the nation and the empire gave feminists the means to argue that their role in the nation amounted to a responsibility for the race and indeed the empire itself.7 Yet

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India

's place in the world. Immunisation as fallacy In 1921 N. F. Billimoria of the Bombay Humanitarian League – an animal welfare organisation – published a pamphlet against vaccination entitled Vaccination and Small-pox . The pamphlet consisted of three parts: a piece written by Billimoria himself, a piece written by the Secretary to the National Anti-Vaccination League in Britain, Ms Lily Loat, and a compilation of authoritative

in The politics of vaccination
Mass graves in post-war Malaysia

sook ching (purge through cleansing) massacres  – has become symbolic of Japanese brutality. The death toll from these massacres remains contested; estimates range from 5,000 to 50,000.2 As a result, multiple mass graves scar the territory’s landscape. While these serve as physical testament to this dark period in the country’s history, many of these sites remain relatively unknown and scarcely remembered.3 Often, documented cases of exhumations – be it Bergen-Belsen in Germany, Vinnytsia in Ukraine, or Priaranza in Spain, to name but a few sites where mass graves

in Human remains and identification
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Colonial subjects and the appeal for imperial justice

political and cultural unity, an understanding of British history that emphasised the expansion of England, first in the British Isles then overseas to the neo-Britains of America, Africa, and the Pacific, as the defining attribute of Britain’s past, present, and future. 3 Advocates of imperial federation at the turn of the century, most notably the former Birmingham radical Joseph Chamberlain, agitated for a global political

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
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techniques showcased in JFK and Natural Born Killers among others were eschewed for a more pared-​down palate, visible in the cinéma vérité style of the Castro documentaries and the pedagogic techniques of presentation used in Untold History. It added up to an auteurist instinct that was almost covering its artistic tracks. Indeed, post-​Sarris, post-​structuralism and variants thereof, more recent assessments of auteurism have given added emphasis to the commercial aspects of a director’s brand. Undoubtedly, this has been a strong dimension in Stone’s story too. By the

in The cinema of Oliver Stone

our purposes is the plurality of actors involved in constituting the major conflict line at any one time in the history of the European states’ system: two during the seventeenth century, many during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, again two during the twentieth century. Now, with the United States being the only superpower around, the so-called ‘unipolar moment’ has arrived – but it is

in Mapping European security after Kosovo

, and events are ordered. Although it still often relates scenes of chaos and confusion, the text itself is carefully arranged and adjusted to permit the reader to follow Farmborough’s spiritual journey as a neophyte nurse, as well as her geographical one first as a member of a Russian flying column and then as a British subject escaping from revolutionary Russia. The oral history interviews Farmborough gave to Margaret Brooks and Peter Liddle were conducted soon after she had published Nurse at the Russian Front, and both are strongly influenced by the memoir. It is

in Nurse Writers of the Great War