Joshua B. Spero

Russia, China and America, or competition between regional powers such as Iran, Turkey and Pakistan – all are quite beyond the capacity of a programme like PfP to influence directly. Only the states of Eurasia themselves, working in cooperation with other key states and international institutions such as the UN, World Bank and IMF, can deal with these problems directly.22 However, NATO’s ongoing PfP process can apply the successful experiences of nearly a decade of multilateral cooperative programmes within the region towards an ongoing stabilising role. NATO

in Limiting institutions?
Rodney Barker

a group or nation of exceptional status or more intense representativeness can become an indication of hostility or threat. When the call is for ‘ les aristocrates à la lanterne! ’ the tension which is always there between association and distinction becomes deadly, and it becomes perilous to mark yourself out as a distinguished or exceptional representative of the nation. In China in the twentieth century, periods of revolution and instability were marked by the stigmatising of supposed enemies identified by their dress. Young red guards

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Tony Addison

vigorous following the adoption of universal adult franchise at independence – but otherwise the case for democracy in poor countries was mostly neglected. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy and notwithstanding serious human rights abuses. This lesson was taken to heart by the Chinese Communist Party, which began the transition to a market economy in the 1970s, the resulting economic growth thereby enabling the party to

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Francisco E. González and Desmond King

has served as the principal military enforcer of democracy against totalitarianism, in its various guises. The Truman presidency (1945–52) rejected US isolationism, both for pragmatic reasons (the Soviet Union and China would exploit such a withdrawal through expansionism) and for ideological motives, the ‘imponderable, but nevertheless drastic effects on our beliefs in ourselves and in our way of life of a deliberate decision to isolate ourselves’ (in Etzold and Gaddis 1978: 432). President Truman’s National Security Council (NSC) articulated the worth of defending

in Democratization through the looking-glass
M. Anne Brown

and underpins international treaties and declarations. The following three case studies look at quite different situations. The first considers an event: the Tiananmen Square massacre in China in 1989. This case study looks at the way a language of indignation that draws significantly on Lockean models of the state, political community and human rights may hinder understanding of and response to particular situations of abuse – even when that situation, in this case a textbook example of the grave abuse of citizens by their own

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)
Education and development in modern Southeast Asian history
Tim Harper

signs that the scholarly ground is shifting and that, through an accumulation of work on Chinese and Islamic education, the importance of the non-formal sector in particular seems to be coming back into focus. With this in mind, the potential contribution of historians, it seems to me, is modest and straightforward: to try to provide a useful narrative of regional thinking about education and development in Southeast Asia, particularly during its key ‘periods of transition’. This, I think, is something we have not done well. But we can also strive to set educational

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Association and distinction in politics and religion
Rodney Barker

secluded activity which sustained the public work of kingship, but was distinct from it. This was not an eccentricity of a single English king, but a universal feature of rulers and elites of all kinds. A similar function appears to have been served by a small album of paintings on silk of the Yongzheng Emperor in early eighteenth-century China. The pictures were not for public display, but presented the emperor, to himself, in a range of guises and situations of varying fantasy, but each representing an aspect of human worth, skill, dignity, heroism, or authority. 19

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Peter Burnell

developing world. Furthermore, it is the changes that have taken place in development thinking that help explain the growth of international democracy-promotion. But much more even than political science, development studies draws on economics and sociology (as well as on politics), to name but some of its tributaries. China, of course, is the most dynamic large economy in the developing world. Recent claims that China’s political evolution in the 1990s had unparalleled significance for democratization trends worldwide (Youngs 2001: 165) look to be an exaggeration. Even so

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Monstrous markets – neo-liberalism, populism and the demise of the public university
John Holmwood and Jan Balon

, Sweden Democrats, and the Freedom Party of Austria) indicates that ‘populism’ is a more general issue. It has also been reported that Chinese President Xi Jinping has called for intensified ideological control over universities (Philips, 2016), including, presumably, the sixty-four ‘branch’ operations of transnational higher-education institutions currently operating in China, of which Nottingham University Ningbo is one (He, 2016). Oxford Dictionaries (2016) has marked this new political mood by announcing online that ‘post-truth’ was its ‘word of the year’, ‘denoting

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

British response to a threat of a different kind – the emergence and subsequent rampage of plague through China and beyond at the end of the century. The authors offer a number of observations, including women’s reasons for volunteering to work in such challenging environments, far from home, and the personal as well as professional challenges they faced. Recruitment and the professionalisation of nursing, and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered here, particularly focusing on themes of class and gender. Moving into the twentieth century the next

in Colonial caring