monopoly has created difficulties for the 110 Sports law and policy in the European Union uniform application of competition powers in an enlarged EU. However, the very reason for needing reform may hinder the viability of the Commission’s proposal. For national regulatory bodies to play a more active role in applying competition law requires familiarity with existing practice in case law. Due to the resource problem, the Commission has however settled many cases through negotiation rather than formal channels. In areas such as sport, where the use of soft law is most

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

subsystems was therefore increased. It was 62 Sports law and policy in the European Union perceived that the consequence of operating in multiple (economic) venues was the gradual erosion of sports autonomy and fundamental values. In particular, Bosman contributed to the emergence of a sports policy subsystem as advocates unhappy at the explicit economic definition of sport adopted in the ruling emerged as a more co-ordinated force. Consequently, following Bosman, a more holistic approach to sport began to be discussed in a more co-ordinated forum. EU sports policy

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

in order to form a view of where the relationship between sport and the EU currently stands. Although a rather timeconsuming exercise, it is nonetheless a worthwhile exercise. However, in order to understand how the relationship between sport and the EU emerged and in what direction EU sports law and policy is heading, some further analysis is required. 202 Sports law and policy in the European Union Theoretical contributions As explained in Chapter 2, an obvious gap in the sports law literature is the lack of theoretical investigation. This poses some problems

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became a religion that influenced rulers and was dominant organizationally, politically, and theologically throughout Europe, one that Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 4 20/08/2014 12:34:42 Early beginnings 5 was victorious over Islam and that established the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. During each of these stages, the attitude of Judaism towards those who converted to the rival religion was a clear indication of its own self-perception and identity. The Jews were familiar with the view that Christianity was the heir of Judaism and that it was the

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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Introduction Sports Law and Policy in the European Union is a deliberately provocative title. It is not widely accepted that a discrete body of sports law has emerged or is emerging within the European Union (EU) or within national jurisdictions. Furthermore, given that the EU has no legal competence to develop a sports policy, one might ask (as I was by an eminent ‘sport and the law’ lawyer), ‘what the bloody hell has the Common Market got to do with sport?’ Browsing through the list of EU activities contained in Article 3 of the EU’s Treaty, it is clear that

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The European Union and its member states

This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.

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manorial, secular and ecclesiastical, which adopted different procedures, adversarial and inquisitorial. Some used juries and some did not; some looked to accusers, others to informers. The chapters in this volume discuss the principles which governed both the common law of England and the Roman and canon law of the Church and of some of the states of continental Europe. Some are written by scholars who are, by training, lawyers and members of law faculties and schools, others by historians interested in the application of the law and the functioning of the courts in

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700

chap 10 27/5/03 12:02 pm Page 339 10 The Länder, the Bundesrat, and the legislative process in Germany and Europe The Federal Council, or Bundesrat All federal states have some kind of second chamber that participates in the legislative process and represents the constituent parts of the whole, but Germany’s second chamber is unique in the world’s federal systems.1 It is unique in that it is a federal, not a Land, organ, in which the member states are represented by their governments (i.e., cabinets). This means it is an executive as well as a legislative

in The Länder and German federalism
Coping with intertwined conflicts

Turkey's involvement in the Gulf War in 1991 paved the way for the country's acceptance into the European Union. This book traces that process, and in the first part looks at Turkey's foreign policy in the 1990s, considering the ability of the country to withstand the repercussions of the fall of communism. It focuses on Turkey's achievement in halting and minimising the effects of the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the skilful way in which Turkey avoided becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East; and the development of a continued policy of closer integration into the European and western worlds. Internal politics are the focus of the second part of the book, addressing the curbing of the Kurdish revolt, the economic gains made and the strengthening of civil society. The book goes on to analyse the prospects for Turkey in the twenty-first century, in the light of the possible integration into Europe, which may leave the country's leadership free to deal effectively with domestic issues.

The logics underpining EU enlargement

The foreign policy of the European Union is in many ways a puzzle to students of international relations. Doubts about whether there is in reality a European foreign policy contrast with empirical observations of the considerable influence exerted by the EU, if not always in the international system at large, then at least in Europe. Such observations imply that the EU has a ‘foreign policy’ of sorts

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy