Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

. In reality very few ‘nation-states’ can be identified in any clear sense of the term. One might claim Turkey, Thailand, Japan or Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway as constituting examples of this species. But even these might be subject to such qualifications as to cast doubt on the validity of the concept. If one talks of Turkey as a nation-state, for example, then one must ignore the presence of Kurdish, Armenian and

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

struggles such as the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). Fascist movements gained control in several countries prior to the Second World War, most notably in Hungary, Rumania and Finland. Modern technology enables contemporary fascist movements to exchange ideas and tactics via the internet. Non-materialism A very important source for fascist values was ‘non-materialism’, the belief that materialistic

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s Britain
Jane Hand

the public, 75 the ability of individuals to act on this advice was more complex and multi-factorial. This is particularly visible in Lessons for the Living , which spends much of its investigative content examining the health outcomes of North Karelia in Finland – a region where coronary heart disease prevention programmes had been particularly successful and mortality rates had dropped dramatically. This comparative element enabled the programme to demonstrate successful community interventions

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Robert Mackay

handle. The Nazi–Soviet Pact had been damaging for Britain’s position from its inception two years before and of great value to Hitler in accomplishing his victories. And Stalin, too, had been as aggressive as Hitler against his smaller neighbours Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Finland. Britain had every reason to resent the role that the Soviet Union had played and every reason to distrust Stalin as a possible comrade-in-arms. But the fact was that Britain was beleaguered and could not afford to be over-particular about her associates. So Churchill extended

in Half the battle
The evolving European security architecture
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis

spy-planes Spain: 6,000 troops; one ship unit including aircraft carrier; 40 planes Italy: 6,000 troops The Netherlands: 5,000 troops Greece: 3,500 troops Austria: 2,000 troops Institutional imperatives of system change 161 Finland: 2,000 troops Belgium: 1,000 (to 3,000 troops); 9 ships; 25 planes Sweden: 1,500 troops Portugal: 1,000 troops Ireland: 1,000 troops Luxembourg: 100 troops Denmark: no contribution owing to the Amsterdam opt-out. There are many problems one must mention at this stage: the national defence budgets have been falling dramatically in the

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

the university, an internationalisation was under way. The Fulbright Program, Alexander von Humboldt fellowships, and supranational rectors’ associations brought academics into contact with one another, evoking a sense that a republic of the learned still existed.155 154  Higher Education: Report of the Committee Appointed by the Prime Minister under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins 1961–63 (London, 1963); Anderson, British Universities, pp. 131–62. 155  Rüegg & Sadlak, ‘Relations with Authority’, pp. 95–101. Using Finland as an example, Marja Jalava has

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Eric Pudney

promptly sails away in it.) Many of the other stories that Heywood repeats are distanced from Heywood’s England in time and place; many are classical, others concern ‘the Witches in Lap-land, Fin-land, and these miserable and wretched cold countries’.31 One exception is the Warboys case, mentioned in passing 28 Heywood, 29 Heywood, 30 Heywood, 31 Heywood, Gynaikeion, Gynaikeion, Gynaikeion, Gynaikeion, p. 406. pp. 409–10. p. 414. p. 417. The Late Lancashire Witches 219 in The Hierarchie of the Blessed Angels. Heywood’s only source of information about this case

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Patrick Doyle

countries such as France, Germany, Finland, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. 30 The growth of the movement during the 1890s led to conflict with economic opponents who published their attacks in the press. Fr Finlay understood the importance of a newspaper to promote the movement's progress and offer a public rebuke to such attacks in media. For example, a report on ‘Horace Plunkett's Disorganization Society’ in the Skibbereen Eagle described the movement as a ‘scheme for the introduction of continental socialism’. The author advised

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Partial offsets and unfinished business
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis

. (3) Has the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.’ 35 Ibid., p. 114. 36 Our emendation. The first round of enlargement took place in 1973 to include in the Community the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland and Denmark; the second in 1981 to include Greece; the third in 1987 to include Spain and Portugal; and the fourth in 1992 to include Sweden, Austria and Finland. 37 See Frank Vibert, A Core Agenda for the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference, European

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Arantza Gomez Arana

,000 17,000 21,500 1,492,780 1,584,275 1,488,885 1,702,895 2,083,745 EU exp to Mercosur 0.46% as % of total 0.56% 0.80% 0.99% 1.03% Sources:  The author’s own elaboration with the data from IRELA (1995, 1999), WTO Statistics Database and Eurostat Database. Note:  1Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU. level of trade as a percentage of the total EU trade. The highest level is barely 1% of the total imports and exports, evidence enough of its relative insignificance. This table also shows that there had been a considerable increase in the area of EU exports

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: