From revolution to reform

than outright criticism and its slide continued. In 1983–84 it was even rivalled as a protest party by the FN. By 1984, the Party had decided that criticism of the Socialists from outside the coalition was the best strategy and it left government. Communist hostility to the Socialists was unremitting from then until 1994. However, in terms of relevance, the PCF was close to slipping out of the party system (Sartori, 1976: 122–3). Yet, because the Party was hostile to the ‘reformist’ Socialist Party, and clung to the old certainties of state socialism, it was unable

in The French party system

principle that European law is superior to national laws, the sovereignty of parliament has been eroded. While it is true that Britain can retrieve its full sovereignty by leaving the EU, as long as we are a member, Europe can overrule parliament on any issue which requires only a majority vote in the Council of Ministers. A constitutional certainty which has existed for over three hundred years has, therefore, been diminished. 3 Rights in Britain have always been more vulnerable than in the rest of Europe. The power of government and the sovereignty of parliament have

in Understanding British and European political issues
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force for conservatism. On one level, many workers, particularly from the state-owned sector, resent the fact that marketization has resulted in loss of jobs and the concomitant reduction of welfare provision. What many of them want is the certainty and basic standards of welfare associated with the old – not a return to the harsh days of the Cultural Revolution, but instead to a time after Mao when market reforms had been introduced, but their harsh impact on unprofitable producers had yet to become apparent. This seems far preferable to the uncertainty that the new

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Another time

alternative Israeli “single-by-choice” websites and active bloggers who convey these messages. However, there are a few signs that indicate the possibility of a slow parallel transformation in Israel. For example, Rotem Lior, writing on the Ynet portal, introduces herself in the following way: Let me introduce myself: I am Rotem, a single woman not just by choice or a conscious decision but as a result of my very own will. Why? It’s just in my nature. I prefer question marks to exclamation marks, expectation over certainty, and lust over statistics … Do people believe me

in A table for one

living with HIV among HIV patients has changed their orientation towards time and the ways in which they seek to compensate for the loss of the temporal assumptions that existed prior to the diagnosis. Davies has found that when a person receives a diagnosis of HIV, they are immediately taken aback by the certainty of the assumed futurity of their existence. Becker argues poignantly that when things are synchronized, time can go unnoticed, yet when it is disrupted it becomes visible. These varied perspectives provide rich insight into how hegemonic perceptions of time

in A table for one
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Becoming an “old maid”

-course from now on, their life span is endowed with clarity and certainty: aging alone and dying alone. The tyranny of age The data analysis thus far demonstrates the power of familial, heteronormative, ageist, and sexist norms in construing the category of the “aging single woman.” However, some of the single women writing for Ynet do not conform to these hegemonic discourses, instead challenging them in various ways. One apt example is a text written by Rotem, one of the columnists mentioned above, who defines herself as “a thirtysomething content single woman” (Lior 2006

in A table for one
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the increased returns take some time to occur. The lack of a functioning system for credit blocked this option for many enterprises. Moreover, privatisation was largely carried out in a legal vacuum and in circumstances characterised by little transparency, poor oversight by the authorities and a general lack of certainty about the future. Thus, incentives were created for those controlling 36 International environmental agreements in Russia (not necessarily owning) the privatising enterprises to harvest great short-term profits in ways which were hardly

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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Robert Hamer after Ealing

Catholicism. Though not religious, Hamer felt a grudging envy for the certainties of faith – as does his surrogate in the film, played by Peter Finch with saturnine charm. A renegade aristocrat (like Ledocq in The Spider and the Fly ), Flambeau steals not out of greed or viciousness, but to requite a world that has no place for him. ‘I was trained as a good swordsman,’ he tells Brown, ‘but in a

in British cinema of the 1950s
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Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture

culture has fundamentally changed or collapsed. A second hypothesis was that the influence of strategic culture on behaviour will depend on contextual factors. In settled times of certainty strategic culture will influence behaviour indirectly, at a distance, while in unsettled periods of greater ambivalence strategic culture will directly govern behaviour almost as an ideology. With the ending of the Cold War the impacts of strategic culture on German security policy behaviour were far more direct, with the nexus between policy and strategic culture being close. From the

in Germany and the use of force
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, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985), pp. 211–45; see also Butler, Gender Trouble , pp. 128–41. 11 For the classic feminist critique of scientific certainties in biology and reproduction, see D. Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (London, Free Association, 1991

in Political concepts