Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

society. One must not blame religion or religious fundamentalism for the ills of the world. Radical secularism and the political pseudo-religions of fascism and communism have created as much misery and death as has religion during the twentieth century. In fact, it has often been religion that has inspired people to enormous sacrifices in resisting such tyrannies: Protestants in Nazi Germany, Catholics in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Or how to make the Armenian corpses disappear
Raymond H. Kévorkian

first priority for the Young Turks was to conceal all traces of their crimes as quickly as possible. The first phase of the genocide The first phase of the genocide, from April to September 1915, consisted of the forced deportation (the ‘death marches’) of the DHR.indb 89 5/15/2014 12:51:10 PM 90  Raymond H. Kévorkian Armenian and Syrian populations from the Ottoman Empire, in particular from six eastern provinces, where the majority had their historic roots. These are wild, mountainous regions, at average altitudes of 2,000 metres; the enclosed valleys

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
Soviet things that talk
Yulia Karpova

‘fulfilling or amplifying the sensory capacities of the human organism’.18 The curtailment of the NEP in the latter half of the 1920s and the launch of a full-scale industrialisation campaign was followed by the restriction of such cultural policies and a ban on independent artistic movements, so these comradely objects did not reach a mass audience through mass production as the productivists had planned. However, what happened to productivism after Stalin’s death? In the late 1950s Soviet cultural policies softened and opened, though only moderately, to international

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

ambitions will revive after the war – but at present all I want is a quiet life on a moderate income and a bicycle in an English countryside and you to look after (I should have put you first)’.8 In March 1917 he realised that it would soon be Easter (‘I have sufficiently regained a sense of time’) and mused upon the Resurrection which he could not help evaluating in terms of his present existence. He found himself wishing for, ‘the resurrection of this life’, for, as he had found, ‘this existence is death, mental and usually spiritual’.9 At the end of May, Innes was

in A war of individuals
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

was a history made more poignant by the lack of a body to bury.60 The overwhelming sense was one of lack, but the factors that make up that sense are more complicated than the death of so many. They combine to inform my reading of the experience of the war as an obvious climax to the period.61 As a metaphorical landscape, the war reanimated and heightened the fight between knowledge and ignorance, repression and liberation and opposing psychic manifestations and needs. War Masterman was the junior member of Asquith’s cabinet in 1914 as war came. He says that his

in Fragmenting modernism
Ghosts and the busy nothing in Footfalls
Stephen Thomson

almost de rigueur. Indeed it has come to encapsulate this period in Beckett’s theatre. Notably Ruby Cohn refers to the plays of the 1970s (and Play) as the ‘post-death plays’,12 and the relevant chapter of James Knowlson’s biography borrows the title ‘Shades’ from Beckett’s own for the BBC birthday celebrations of 1976.13 The text of Footfalls itself seems to authorise this identification by introducing a thoroughly anecdotal ghost in May’s little tale of her ‘semblance’ Amy. The ‘moon through passing rack’14 which figures the church candle veiled by the passage of the

in Beckett and nothing
Torsten Riotte

In December 1811, Ernst Horn, a Professor at the Berlin Charité hospital was sued over the death of one of his patients. The twenty-one-year-old Louise Thiele had been hospitalised in August 1811 and diagnosed with hysteria. The doctor recommended the full variety of applications commonly prescribed at the time. Cold water baths were applied with doses of a hundred buckets of cold water. The patient was put in a rotating bed, an apparatus inspired by the English swing machine, restrained and rotated with a cadence of 120 times per minute

in Progress and pathology
Yulia Karpova

particular were chosen. It also does not explain the slightly mixed chronology (interchanging objects from the 1920s and 1960s) or the conspicuous absence of anything from the late 1930s to the 1950s. The question remains: what was the logic behind this order of things? I suggest that the commonality between these images, which would have been immediately comprehensible to the journal’s readers, was a particular aesthetic that gradually emerged in the Soviet Union after Stalin’s death in 1953 and became pronounced by the late 1960s. I do not use ‘aesthetics’ as it is used

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

Jonathan Colman

domestic dissent and a mounting death toll in Vietnam, announced that he would not seek another term in of-fice, 74 and the Republican contender, Richard Nixon, won the presidential election on 5 November that year. On 13 January 1969, Johnson asked Dean to tell Wilson that ‘one of his great comforts had been that he could always count on the UK during any crisis’. He was ‘personally grateful for the warm and effective relations he had always had with

in A ‘special relationship’?