/403, Note of a meeting held at Downing Street, 26 October 1964;
PREM 13/978, Notes of the proceedings of the National Conference on
Productivity, 27 September 1966. For more on the importance of productivity, see J. Tomlinson, The Labour Governments 1964–70. Vol. 3: EconomicPolicy (Manchester, 2004), chapter 8.
D. E. Butler and A. King, The British General Election of 1964 (1965), pp.
115–16; PREM 13/606.
PREM 13/786, The Communist party and the threatened railway strike,
22 February 1966.
PREM 13/1847, Record of a meeting between H. Wilson and R. Gunter,
The Declaration by the United Nations was
signed by 26 states on 1 January 1942.
For US economic ‘national interests’
in Africa, for instance, see V. McKay, Africa in World
Politics (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974 ), pp. 278–82; and for Soviet economicpolicy
2/92). Only if these materialist and hedonist systems (and cultures) are overcome, is it possible to
achieve a return to traditional ethical values.
Originally the CP’86 professed a rather liberal economic view which featured primarily in the election programme. It stressed the importance of
decentralisation and privatisation of state tasks, the reduction of collective
spending and tax and premium reductions where and whenever possible (CP
1987: 9.7; also chapter XIII). It further
economic and financial policy was mainly shaped by so-called
‘technocratic’ actors – among them the monetary experts L. Dini and C.A.
Ciampi – who had participated in the negotiations for EMU. Such technocrats were able to increase their influence by taking advantage of the
elite changes in the party system and the disciplining pressure of the
Maastricht criteria for the country’s economic behaviour.10 A more severe
economicpolicy – including unpopular reductions in public expenditure
and even a special Euro tax – was justified by the government in terms of
.), The Politics of Thatcherism (London: Lawrence and Wishart in Association with Marxism Today, 1983), pp. 19–39; N. Timmins, The Five Giants: A Biography of the Welfare State (London: Fontana Press, 1996), pp. 356–60.
74 Kerr, Post-War British Politics . For economicpolicy: R. Lowe, The Welfare State in Britain since 1945 , 3rd edition (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), pp. 125–6.
75 J. Tomlinson, ‘Why was there never a “Keynesian revolution” in economicpolicy?’, Economy and Society , 10:1 (1981), 72
-trust policies needed to be pursued and natural
monopolies needed to be regulated. And the Government needed to proceed
actively to assure that the workings of the economic system did not generate
unrelieved poverty. There were only a few years between the Kennedy
administration’s first economic report and the ‘war on poverty’.
These changes in economicpolicy or, more broadly, changes in the view of
what capitalism was and what was needed to make it effective did not go
unchallenged. By the middle or late 1970s there was considerable advocacy
, ranging from the
introduction of elected assemblies for Scotland and Wales and a directly
elected mayor for London to removal in stages of the hereditary peers from
the House of Lords. His government’s economicpolicies, implemented by
Gordon Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been conservative and have
produced large public sector surpluses. He has made statements expressing
commitment to European integration and
Analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing
‘the collective physical, economic, policy and sociocultural surroundings, opportunities and conditions that influence people’s food and beverage choices and nutritional status’ (Swinburn et al., 2013 : 25). Food environments are essentially the context in which the acquisition and consumption of food occurs, providing a series of opportunities and constraints that influence decisions about what to eat (FAO, 2016 ).
Most studies of urban food environments have focused on the categorisation, measurement and geographic analysis of different types of food outlet
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
dissatisfied with the social and economicpolicies of the British colonial government, began to trek into the
interior, seeking land and militarily challenging the dominant African
rulers. The ultimate result of this ‘Great Trek’ was the
establishment of Boer (Afrikaner) republics in the interior, and in
Natal on the south-east coast. The Boer republic of Natalia was
established in 1838, following the military
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition
in undermining the quality of diverse women's lives. By
highlighting sources of gender disempowerment such as the
disproportionate burdens on women through neoliberal economicpolicies, Fraser ( 2008b : 39) urges engagement
of the world's most deprived in a dialogue about the source, or
‘frame’, of injustices affecting their lives. She thus offers a